Scientific Publications

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313 Results

2024

The clinical and genetic landscape of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies in Egyptian children

Elkhateeb N, Issa MY, Elbendary HM, Elnaggar W, Ramadan A, Rafat K, Kamel M, Abdel-Ghafar SF, Amer F, Hassaan HM, Trunzo R, Pereira C, Abdel-Hamid MS, D’Arco F, Bauer P, Bertoli-Avella AM, Girgis M, Gleeson JG, Zaki MS, Selim L.

Clin Genet. 2024 Jan 14. doi: 10.1111/cge.14481. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a heterogeneous group of epilepsies characterized by early-onset, refractory seizures associated with developmental regression or impairment, with a heterogeneous genetic landscape including genes implicated in various pathways and mechanisms. We retrospectively studied the clinical and genetic data of patients with genetic DEE who presented at two tertiary centers in Egypt over a 10-year period. Exome sequencing was used for genetic testing. We report 74 patients from 63 unrelated Egyptian families, with a high rate of consanguinity (58%). The most common seizure type was generalized tonic-clonic (58%) and multiple seizure types were common (55%). The most common epilepsy syndrome was early infantile DEE (50%). All patients showed variable degrees of developmental impairment. Microcephaly, hypotonia, ophthalmological involvement and neuroimaging abnormalities were common. Eighteen novel variants were identified and the phenotypes of five DEE genes were expanded with novel phenotype-genotype associations. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis had implications on epilepsy management in 17 patients with variants in 12 genes. In this study, we expand the phenotype and genotype spectrum of DEE in a large single ethnic cohort of patients. Reaching a genetic diagnosis guided precision management of epilepsy in a significant proportion of patients. PMID:38221827 | DOI:10.1111/cge.14481

January 14, 2024
Neurogenomics

2023

Gain-of-function and loss-of-function variants in GRIA3 lead to distinct neurodevelopmental phenotypes

Rinaldi B, Bayat A, Zachariassen LG, Sun JH, Ge YH, Zhao D, Bonde K, Madsen LH, Awad IAA, Bagiran D, Sbeih A, Shah SM, El-Sayed S, Lyngby SM, Pedersen MG, Stenum-Berg C, Walker LC, Krey I, Delahaye-Duriez A, Emrick LT, Sully K, Murali CN, Burrage LC, Plaud Gonzalez JA, Parnes M, Friedman J, Isidor B, Lefranc J, Redon S, Heron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Fradin M, Dubourg C, Mercier S, Besnard T, Cogne B, Deb W, Rivier C, Milani D, Bedeschi MF, Di Napoli C, Grilli F, Marchisio P, Koudijs S, Veenma D, Argilli E, Lynch SA, Au PYB, Ayala Valenzuela FE, Brown C, Masser-Frye D, Jones M, Patron Romero L, Li WL, Thorpe E, Hecher L, Johannsen J, Denecke J, McNiven V, Szuto A, Wakeling E, Cruz V, Sency V, Wang H, Piard J, Kortüm F, Herget T, Bierhals T, Condell A, Zeev BB, Kaur S, Christodoulou J, Piton A, Zweier C, Kraus C, Micalizzi A, Trivisano M, Specchio N, Lesca G, Møller RS, Tümer Z, Musgaard M, Gerard B, Lemke JR, Shi YS, Kristensen AS.

Brain. 2023 Dec 1:awad403. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad403. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. AMPARs form by homo- or heteromeric assembly of subunits encoded by the GRIA1-GRIA4 genes, of which only GRIA3 is X-chromosomal. Increasing numbers of GRIA3 missense variants are reported in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), but only a few have been examined functionally. Here, we evaluated the impact on AMPAR function of one frameshift and 43 rare missense GRIA3 variants identified in patients with NDD by electrophysiological assays. Thirty-one variants alter receptor function and show loss-of-function (LoF) or gain-of-function (GoF) properties, whereas 13 appeared neutral. We collected detailed clinical data from 25 patients (from 23 families) harbouring 17 of these variants. All patients had global developmental impairment, mostly moderate (9/25) or severe (12/25). Twelve patients had seizures, including focal motor (6/12), unknown onset motor (4/12), focal impaired awareness (1/12), (atypical) absence (2/12), myoclonic (5/12), and generalized tonic-clonic (1/12) or atonic (1/12) seizures. The epilepsy syndrome was classified as developmental and epileptic encephalopathy in eight patients, developmental encephalopathy without seizures in 13 patients, and intellectual disability with epilepsy in four patients. Limb muscular hypotonia was reported in 13/25, and hypertonia in 10/25. Movement disorders were reported in 14/25, with hyperekplexia or non-epileptic erratic myoclonus being the most prevalent feature (8/25). Correlating receptor functional phenotype with clinical features revealed clinical features for GRIA3-associated NDDs and distinct NDD phenotypes for LoF and GoF variants. GoF variants were associated with more severe outcomes: patients were younger at the time of seizure onset (median age one month), hypertonic, and more often had movement disorders, including hyperekplexia. Patients with LoF variants were older at the time of seizure onset (median age 16 months), hypotonic, and had sleeping disturbances. LoF and GoF variants were disease-causing in both sexes but affected males often carried de novo or hemizygous LoF variants inherited from healthy mothers, whereas all but one affected females had de novo heterozygous GoF variants. PMID:38038360 | DOI:10.1093/brain/awad403

December 1, 2023
Neurogenomics

Genomic data resources of the Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network for neuropsychiatric diseases

Garrison MA, Jang Y, Bae T, Cherskov A, Emery SB, Fasching L, Jones A, Moldovan JB, Molitor C, Pochareddy S, Peters MA, Shin JH, Wang Y, Yang X, Akbarian S, Chess A, Gage FH, Gleeson JG, Kidd JM, McConnell M, Mills RE, Moran JV, Park PJ, Sestan N, Urban AE, Vaccarino FM, Walsh CA, Weinberger DR, Wheelan SJ, Abyzov A; BSMN Consortium.

Sci Data. 2023 Nov 20;10(1):813. doi: 10.1038/s41597-023-02645-7. ABSTRACT Somatic mosaicism is defined as an occurrence of two or more populations of cells having genomic sequences differing at given loci in an individual who is derived from a single zygote. It is a characteristic of multicellular organisms that plays a crucial role in normal development and disease. To study the nature and extent of somatic mosaicism in autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, focal cortical dysplasia, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome, a multi-institutional consortium called the Brain Somatic Mosaicism Network (BSMN) was formed through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). In addition to genomic data of affected and neurotypical brains, the BSMN also developed and validated a best practices somatic single nucleotide variant calling workflow through the analysis of reference brain tissue. These resources, which include >400 terabytes of data from 1087 subjects, are now available to the research community via the NIMH Data Archive (NDA) and are described here. PMID:37985666 | DOI:10.1038/s41597-023-02645-7

November 20, 2023
Neurogenomics

Spliceosome malfunction causes neurodevelopmental disorders with overlapping features

Li D, Wang Q, Bayat A, Battig MR, Zhou Y, Bosch DG, van Haaften G, Granger L, Petersen AK, Pérez-Jurado LA, Aznar-Laín G, Aneja A, Hancarova M, Bendova S, Schwarz M, Kremlíková Pourová R, Sedlacek Z, Keena BA, March ME, Hou C, O’Connor N, Bhoj EJ, Harr MH, Lemire G, Boycott KM, Towne MC, Li M, Tarnopolsky M, Brady L, Parker MJ, Faghfoury H, Parsley LK, Agolini E, Dentici ML, Novelli A, Wright MS, Palmquist R, Lai K, Scala M, Striano P, Iacomino M, Zara F, Cooper A, Maarup TJ, Byler M, Lebel RR, Balci TB, Louie RJ, Lyons MJ, Douglas J, Nowak CB, Afenjar A, Hoyer J, Keren B, Maas SM, Motazacker MM, Martinez-Agosto JA, Rabani AM, McCormick EM, Falk M, Ruggiero SM, Helbig I, Møller RS, Tessarollo L, Tomassoni-Ardori F, Palko ME, Hsieh TC, Krawitz PM, Ganapathi M, Gelb BD, Jobanputra V, Wilson A, Greally J, Jacquemont S, Jizi K, Ange-Line B, Quelin C, Misra VK, Chick E, Romano C, Greco D, Arena A, Morleo M, Nigro V, Seyama R, Uchiyama Y, Matsumoto N, Taira R, Tashiro K, Sakai Y, Yigit G, Wollnik B, Wagner M, Kutsche B, Hurst AC, Thompson ML, Schmidt RJ, Randolph LM, Spillmann RC, Shashi V, Higginbotham EJ, Cordeiro D, Carnevale A, Costain G, Khan T, Funalot B, Tran Mau-Them F, Fernandez Garcia Moya L, García-Miñaúr S, Osmond M, Chad L, Quercia N, Carrasco D, Li C, Sanchez-Valle A, Kelley M, Nizon M, Jensson BO, Sulem P, Stefansson K, Gorokhova S, Busa T, Rio M, Hadj Abdallah H, Lesieur-Sebellin M, Amiel J, Pingault V, Mercier S, Vincent M, Philippe C, Fatus-Fauconnier C, Friend K, Halligan RK, Biswas S, Rosser JM, Shoubridge C, Corbett MA, Barnett C, Gecz J, Leppig KA, Slavotinek A, Marcelis C, Pfundt R, de Vries BB, van Slegtenhorst MA, Brooks AS, Cogne B, Rambaud T, Tümer Z, Zackai EH, Akizu N, Song Y, Hakonarson H.

J Clin Invest. 2023 Nov 14:e171235. doi: 10.1172/JCI171235. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Pre-mRNA splicing is a highly coordinated process. While its dysregulation has been linked to neurological deficits, our understanding of the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms remains limited. We implicated pathogenic variants in U2AF2 and PRPF19, encoding spliceosome subunits in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), by identifying 46 unrelated individuals with 23 de novo U2AF2 missense variants (including seven recurrent variants in 30 individuals) and six individuals with de novo PRPF19 variants. Eight U2AF2 variants dysregulated splicing of a model substrate. Neuritogenesis was reduced in human neurons differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells carrying two U2AF2 hyper-recurrent variants. Neural loss of function of the Drosophila orthologs, U2af50 and Prp19, led to lethality, abnormal mushroom body (MB) patterning, and social deficits, differentially rescued by wild-type and mutant U2AF2 or PRPF19. Transcriptome profiling revealed splicing substrates or effectors (including Rbfox1, a third splicing factor), which rescued MB defects in U2af50 deficient flies. Upon re-analysis of negative clinical exomes followed by data sharing, we further identified six NDD patients carrying RBFOX1 missense variants which, by in vitro testing, showed loss of function. Our study implicates three splicing factors as NDD causative genes and establishes a genetic network with hierarchy underlying human brain development and function. PMID:37962958 | DOI:10.1172/JCI171235

November 14, 2023

Bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in WBP4, encoding a spliceosome protein, result in a variable neurodevelopmental syndrome

Engal E, Oja KT, Maroofian R, Geminder O, Le TL, Marzin P, Guimier A, Mor E, Zvi N, Elefant N, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Muru K, Pajusalu S, Wojcik MH, Pachat D, Elmaksoud MA, Chan Jeong W, Lee H, Bauer P, Zifarelli G, Houlden H, Daana M, Elpeleg O, Amiel J, Lyonnet S, Gordon CT, Harel T, Õunap K, Salton M, Mor-Shaked H.

Am J Hum Genet. 2023 Nov 13:S0002-9297(23)00366-X. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.10.013. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Over two dozen spliceosome proteins are involved in human diseases, also referred to as spliceosomopathies. WW domain-binding protein 4 (WBP4) is part of the early spliceosomal complex and has not been previously associated with human pathologies in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. Through GeneMatcher, we identified ten individuals from eight families with a severe neurodevelopmental syndrome featuring variable manifestations. Clinical manifestations included hypotonia, global developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, brain abnormalities, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Genetic analysis revealed five different homozygous loss-of-function variants in WBP4. Immunoblotting on fibroblasts from two affected individuals with different genetic variants demonstrated a complete loss of protein, and RNA sequencing analysis uncovered shared abnormal splicing patterns, including in genes associated with abnormalities of the nervous system, potentially underlying the phenotypes of the probands. We conclude that bi-allelic variants in WBP4 cause a developmental disorder with variable presentations, adding to the growing list of human spliceosomopathies. PMID:37963460 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.10.013

November 13, 2023
Neurogenomics

Bi-allelic ACBD6 variants lead to a neurodevelopmental syndrome with progressive and complex movement disorders

Kaiyrzhanov R, Rad A, Lin SJ, Bertoli-Avella A, Kallemeijn WW, Godwin A, Zaki MS, Huang K, Lau T, Petree C, Efthymiou S, Ghayoor Karimiani E, Hempel M, Normand EA, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Schatz UA, Baggelaar MP, Ilyas M, Sultan T, Alvi JR, Ganieva M, Fowler B, Aanicai R, Akay Tayfun G, Al Saman A, Alswaid A, Amiri N, Asilova N, Shotelersuk V, Yeetong P, Azam M, Babaei M, Bahrami Monajemi G, Mohammadi P, Samie S, Banu SH, Basto JP, Kortüm F, Bauer M, Bauer P, Beetz C, Garshasbi M, Hameed Issa A, Eyaid W, Ahmed H, Hashemi N, Hassanpour K, Herman I, Ibrohimov S, Abdul-Majeed BA, Imdad M, Isrofilov M, Kaiyal Q, Khan S, Kirmse B, Koster J, Lourenço CM, Mitani T, Moldovan O, Murphy D, Najafi M, Pehlivan D, Rocha ME, Salpietro V, Schmidts M, Shalata A, Mahroum M, Talbeya JK, Taylor RW, Vazquez D, Vetro A, Waterham HR, Zaman M, Schrader TA, Chung WK, Guerrini R, Lupski JR, Gleeson J, Suri M, Jamshidi Y, Bhatia KP, Vona B, Schrader M, Severino M, Guille M, Tate EW, Varshney GK, Houlden H, Maroofian R.

Brain. 2023 Nov 10:awad380. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad380. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT The acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein 6 (ACBD6) is ubiquitously expressed, plays a role in the acylation of lipids and proteins, and regulates the N-myristoylation of proteins via N-myristoyltransferase enzymes (NMTs). However, its precise function in cells is still unclear, as is the consequence of ACBD6 defects on human pathophysiology. Utilizing exome sequencing and extensive international data sharing efforts, we identified 45 affected individuals from 28 unrelated families (consanguinity 93%) with bi-allelic pathogenic, predominantly loss-of-function (18/20) variants in ACBD6. We generated zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis acbd6 knockouts by CRISPR/Cas9 and characterized the role of ACBD6 on protein N-myristoylation with YnMyr chemical proteomics in the model organisms and human cells, with the latter also being subjected further to ACBD6 peroxisomal localization studies. The affected individuals (23 males and 22 females), with ages ranging from 1 to 50 years old, typically present with a complex and progressive disease involving moderate-to-severe global developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%) with significant expressive language impairment (98%), movement disorders (97%), facial dysmorphism (95%), and mild cerebellar ataxia (85%) associated with gait impairment (94%), limb spasticity/hypertonia (76%), oculomotor (71%) and behavioural abnormalities (65%), overweight (59%), microcephaly (39%) and epilepsy (33%). The most conspicuous and common movement disorder was dystonia (94%), frequently leading to early-onset progressive postural deformities (97%), limb dystonia (55%), and cervical dystonia (31%). A jerky tremor in the upper limbs (63%), a mild head tremor (59%), parkinsonism/hypokinesia developing with advancing age (32%), and simple motor and vocal tics were among other frequent movement disorders. Midline brain malformations including corpus callosum abnormalities (70%), hypoplasia/agenesis of the anterior commissure (66%), short midbrain and small inferior cerebellar vermis (38% each), as well as hypertrophy of the clava (24%) were common neuroimaging findings. acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus models effectively recapitulated many clinical phenotypes reported in patients including movement disorders, progressive neuromotor impairment, seizures, microcephaly, craniofacial dysmorphism, and midbrain defects accompanied by developmental delay with increased mortality over time. Unlike ACBD5, ACBD6 did not show a peroxisomal localisation and ACBD6-deficiency was not associated with altered peroxisomal parameters in patient fibroblasts. Significant differences in YnMyr-labelling were observed for 68 co- and 18 post-translationally N-myristoylated proteins in patient-derived fibroblasts. N-Myristoylation was similarly affected in acbd6-deficient zebrafish and Xenopus tropicalis models, including Fus, Marcks, and Chchd-related proteins implicated in neurological diseases. The present study provides evidence that bi-allelic pathogenic variants in ACBD6 lead to a distinct neurodevelopmental syndrome accompanied by complex and progressive cognitive and movement disorders. PMID:37951597 | DOI:10.1093/brain/awad380

November 10, 2023
Neurogenomics

Circular extrachromosomal DNA promotes tumor heterogeneity in high-risk medulloblastoma

Chapman OS, Luebeck J, Sridhar S, Wong IT, Dixit D, Wang S, Prasad G, Rajkumar U, Pagadala MS, Larson JD, He BJ, Hung KL, Lange JT, Dehkordi SR, Chandran S, Adam M, Morgan L, Wani S, Tiwari A, Guccione C, Lin Y, Dutta A, Lo YY, Juarez E, Robinson JT, Korshunov A, Michaels JA, Cho YJ, Malicki DM, Coufal NG, Levy ML, Hobbs C, Scheuermann RH, Crawford JR, Pomeroy SL, Rich JN, Zhang X, Chang HY, Dixon JR, Bagchi A, Deshpande AJ, Carter H, Fraenkel E, Mischel PS, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Bafna V, Mesirov JP, Chavez L.

Nat Genet. 2023 Nov 9. doi: 10.1038/s41588-023-01551-3. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Circular extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA) in patient tumors is an important driver of oncogenic gene expression, evolution of drug resistance and poor patient outcomes. Applying computational methods for the detection and reconstruction of ecDNA across a retrospective cohort of 481 medulloblastoma tumors from 465 patients, we identify circular ecDNA in 82 patients (18%). Patients with ecDNA-positive medulloblastoma were more than twice as likely to relapse and three times as likely to die within 5 years of diagnosis. A subset of tumors harbored multiple ecDNA lineages, each containing distinct amplified oncogenes. Multimodal sequencing, imaging and CRISPR inhibition experiments in medulloblastoma models reveal intratumoral heterogeneity of ecDNA copy number per cell and frequent putative ‘enhancer rewiring’ events on ecDNA. This study reveals the frequency and diversity of ecDNA in medulloblastoma, stratified into molecular subgroups, and suggests copy number heterogeneity and enhancer rewiring as oncogenic features of ecDNA. PMID:37945900 | DOI:10.1038/s41588-023-01551-3

November 9, 2023
Neuro-Oncology

ARF1 prevents aberrant type I interferon induction by regulating STING activation and recycling

Hirschenberger M, Lepelley A, Rupp U, Klute S, Hunszinger V, Koepke L, Merold V, Didry-Barca B, Wondany F, Bergner T, Moreau T, Rodero MP, Rösler R, Wiese S, Volpi S, Gattorno M, Papa R, Lynch SA, Haug MG, Houge G, Wigby KM, Sprague J, Lenberg J, Read C, Walther P, Michaelis J, Kirchhoff F, de Oliveira Mann CC, Crow YJ, Sparrer KMJ.

Nat Commun. 2023 Nov 1;14(1):6770. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-42150-4. ABSTRACT Type I interferon (IFN) signalling is tightly controlled. Upon recognition of DNA by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), stimulator of interferon genes (STING) translocates along the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi axis to induce IFN signalling. Termination is achieved through autophagic degradation or recycling of STING by retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport. Here, we identify the GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) as a crucial negative regulator of cGAS-STING signalling. Heterozygous ARF1 missense mutations cause a previously unrecognized type I interferonopathy associated with enhanced IFN-stimulated gene expression. Disease-associated, GTPase-defective ARF1 increases cGAS-STING dependent type I IFN signalling in cell lines and primary patient cells. Mechanistically, mutated ARF1 perturbs mitochondrial morphology, causing cGAS activation by aberrant mitochondrial DNA release, and leads to accumulation of active STING at the Golgi/ERGIC due to defective retrograde transport. Our data show an unexpected dual role of ARF1 in maintaining cGAS-STING homeostasis, through promotion of mitochondrial integrity and STING recycling. PMID:37914730 | DOI:10.1038/s41467-023-42150-4

November 1, 2023
Rare Disease

NBSTRN Tools to Advance Newborn Screening Research and Support Newborn Screening Stakeholders

Chan K, Hu Z, Bush LW, Cope H, Holm IA, Kingsmore SF, Wilhelm K, Scharfe C, Brower A.

Int J Neonatal Screen. 2023 Oct 30;9(4):63. doi: 10.3390/ijns9040063. ABSTRACT Rapid advances in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic disorders have increased the number of conditions that can be detected through universal newborn screening (NBS). However, the addition of conditions to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) and the implementation of nationwide screening has been a slow process taking several years to accomplish for individual conditions. Here, we describe web-based tools and resources developed and implemented by the newborn screening translational research network (NBSTRN) to advance newborn screening research and support NBS stakeholders worldwide. The NBSTRN’s tools include the Longitudinal Pediatric Data Resource (LPDR), the NBS Condition Resource (NBS-CR), the NBS Virtual Repository (NBS-VR), and the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) Advantage. Research programs, including the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Information System (IBEM-IS), BabySeq, EarlyCheck, and Family Narratives Use Cases, have utilized NBSTRN’s tools and, in turn, contributed research data to further expand and refine these resources. Additionally, we discuss ongoing tool development to facilitate the expansion of genetic disease screening in increasingly diverse populations. In conclusion, NBSTRN’s tools and resources provide a trusted platform to enable NBS stakeholders to advance NBS research and improve clinical care for patients and their families. PMID:37987476 | DOI:10.3390/ijns9040063

October 30, 2023
Newborn Screening

Post-zygotic brain mosaicism as a result of partial reversion of pre-zygotic aneuploidy

Chung C, Yang X, Gleeson JG.

Nat Genet. 2023 Oct 23. doi: 10.1038/s41588-023-01552-2. Online ahead of print. NO ABSTRACT PMID:37872451 DOI:10.1038/s41588-023-01552-2

October 23, 2023
Neurogenomics

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