Scientific Publications

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12 Results

2022

The Role of Genome Sequencing in Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Kingsmore SF, Cole FS.

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet. 2022 Jun 8. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genom-120921-103442. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Genetic diseases disrupt the functionality of an infant’s genome during fetal-neonatal adaptation and represent a leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality in the United States. Due to disease acuity, gene locus and allelic heterogeneity, and overlapping and diverse clinical phenotypes, diagnostic genome sequencing in neonatal intensive care units has required the development of methods to shorten turnaround times and improve genomic interpretation. From 2012 to 2021, 31 clinical studies documented the diagnostic and clinical utility of first-tier rapid or ultrarapid whole-genome sequencing through cost-effective identification of pathogenic genomic variants that change medical management, suggest new therapeutic strategies, and refine prognoses. Genomic diagnosis also permits prediction of reproductive recurrence risk for parents and surviving probands. Using implementation science and quality improvement, deployment of a genomic learning healthcare system will contribute to a reduction of neonatal and infant mortality through the integration of genome sequencing into best-practice neonatal intensive care. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 23 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates. PMID:35676073 | DOI:10.1146/annurev-genom-120921-103442

June 8, 2022
Infant MortalityRPM for NICU and PICUrWGS

2021

Maternal, infant, and environmental risk factors for sudden unexpected infant deaths: results from a large, administrative cohort

Bandoli G, Baer RJ, Owen M, Kiernan E, Jelliffe-Pawlowski L, Kingsmore S, Chambers CD

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021 Dec 1:1-8. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2021.2008899. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Many studies of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) have focused on individual domains of risk factors (maternal, infant, and environmental), resulting in limited capture of this multifactorial outcome. The objective of this study was to examine the geographic distribution of SUID in San Diego County, and assess maternal, infant, and environmental risk factors from a large, administrative research platform. STUDY DESIGN: Births in California between 2005 and 2017 were linked to hospital discharge summaries and death files. From this retrospective birth cohort, cases of SUID were identified from infant death files in San Diego County. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for infant, maternal, and environmental factors and SUID in multivariable Cox regression analysis. Models were adjusted for maternal sociodemographic characteristics and prenatal nicotine exposure. RESULTS: There were 211 (44/100,000 live births; absolute risk 0.04%) infants with a SUID among 484,905 live births. There was heterogeneity in geographic distribution of cases. Multiparity (0.05%; aHR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 1.9), maternal depression (0.11%; aHR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0, 3.4), substance-related diagnoses (0.27%; aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3, 3.8), cannabis-related diagnosis (0.35%; aHR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5, 5.0), prenatal nicotine use (0.23%; aHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5, 4.2), preexisting hypertension (0.11%; aHR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2, 4.3), preterm delivery (0.09%; aHR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5, 3.0), infant with a major malformation (0.09%; aHR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.6), respiratory distress syndrome (0.12%; aHR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5, 4.6), and select environmental factors were all associated with SUID. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple risk factors were confirmed and expanded upon, and the geographic distribution for SUID in San Diego County was identified. Through this approach, prevention efforts can be targeted to geographies that would benefit the most. PMID:34852708 | DOI:10.1080/14767058.2021.2008899

December 2, 2021
Infant Mortality

Developmental and temporal characteristics of clonal sperm mosaicism

Xiaoxu Yang, Martin W. Breuss, Xin Xu, Danny Antaki, Kiely N. James, Valentina Stanley, Laurel L. Ball, Renee D. George, Sara A. Wirth, Beibei Cao, An Nguyen, Jennifer McEvoy-Venneri, Guoliang Chai, Shareef Nahas, Lucitia Van Der Kraan, Yan Ding, Jonathan Sebat, Joseph G. Gleeson

Cell. 2021 Aug 7:S0092-8674(21)00883-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.07.024. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Throughout development and aging, human cells accumulate mutations resulting in genomic mosaicism and genetic diversity at the cellular level. Mosaic mutations present in the gonads can affect both the individual and the offspring and subsequent generations. Here, we explore patterns and temporal stability of clonal mosaic mutations in male gonads by sequencing ejaculated sperm. Through 300× whole-genome sequencing of blood and sperm from healthy men, we find each ejaculate carries on average 33.3 ± 12.1 (mean ± SD) clonal mosaic variants, nearly all of which are detected in serial sampling, with the majority absent from sampled somal tissues. Their temporal stability and mutational signature suggest origins during embryonic development from a largely immutable stem cell niche. Clonal mosaicism likely contributes a transmissible, predicted pathogenic exonic variant for 1 in 15 men, representing a life-long threat of transmission for these individuals and a significant burden on human population health. PMID:34388390 | DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2021.07.024

August 17, 2021
Infant Mortality

Uncertain, Not Unimportant: Callosal Dysgenesis and Variants of Uncertain Significance in ROBO1

Woodring TS, Mirza MH, Benavides V, Ellsworth KA, Wright MS, Javed MJ, Ramiro S.

Pediatrics. 2021 Jun 30:e2020019000. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-019000. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Congenital anomalies affect 3% to 5% of births and remain the leading cause of infant death in the United States. As whole exome and genome sequencing are increasingly used to diagnose underlying genetic disease, the patient’s clinical presentation remains the most important context for interpreting sequencing results, including frequently reported variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Classification of a variant as VUS acknowledges limits on evidence to establish whether a variant can be classified as pathogenic or benign according to the American College of Medical Genetics guidelines. Importantly, the VUS designation reflects limits on the breadth of evidence linking the genetic variant to a disease. However, available evidence, although limited, may be surprisingly relevant in an individual patient’s case. Accordingly, a VUS result should be approached neither as nondiagnostic genetic result nor as automatically “uncertain” in its potential to guide clinical decision-making. In this article, we discuss a case of an infant born at 29 weeks 4 days without a corpus callosum, whose whole genome sequencing yielded compound heterozygous variants both classified as VUS in ROBO1, a gene encoding for a receptor involved in a canonical signaling mechanism that guides axons across midline. Approaching the VUS result as potentially pathogenic, we found the infant ultimately had pituitary dysfunction and renal anomalies consistent with other reported ROBO1 variants and basic science literature. Accordingly, we highlight resources for variant interpretation available to clinicians to evaluate VUS results, particularly as they inform the diagnosis of individually rare but collectively common rare diseases. PMID:34193621 | DOI:10.1542/peds.2020-019000

June 30, 2021
Infant Mortality

Postmortem whole-genome sequencing on a dried blood spot identifies a novel homozygous SUOX variant causing isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency

Owen MJ, Lenberg J, Feigenbaum A, Gold J, Chau K, Bezares-Orin Z, Ding Y, Chowdhury S, Kingsmore SF. 

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2021 Jun 11;7(3):a006091. doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006091. Print 2021 Jun. ABSTRACT Rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) has shown that genetic diseases are a common cause of infant mortality in neonatal intensive care units. Dried blood spots collected for newborn screening allow investigation of causes of infant mortality that were not diagnosed during life. Here, we present a neonate who developed seizures and encephalopathy on the third day of life that was refractory to antiepileptic medications. The patient died on day of life 16 after progressive respiratory failure and sepsis. The parents had lost two prior children after similar presentations, neither of whom had a definitive diagnosis. Postmortem rWGS of a dried blood spot identified a pathogenic homozygous frameshift variant in the SUOX gene associated with isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (c.1390_1391del, p.Leu464GlyfsTer10). This case highlights that early, accurate molecular diagnosis has the potential to influence prenatal counseling and guide management in rare, genetic disorders and has added importance in cases of a strong family history and risk factors such as consanguinity. PMID:34117075 | DOI:10.1101/mcs.a006091

June 14, 2021
Infant MortalityrWGS

2020

Measurement of genetic diseases as a cause of mortality in infants receiving whole genome sequencing

Kingsmore SF, Henderson A, Owen MJ, Clark MM, Hansen C, Dimmock D, Chambers CD, Jeliffe-Pawlowski LL, Hobbs C.

NPJ Genom Med. 2020 Nov 2;5:49. doi: 10.1038/s41525-020-00155-8. eCollection 2020.

ABSTRACT

Understanding causes of infant mortality shapes public health policy and prioritizes diseases for investments in surveillance, intervention and medical research. Rapid genomic sequencing has created a novel opportunity to decrease infant mortality associated with treatable genetic diseases. Herein, we sought to measure the contribution of genetic diseases to mortality among infants by secondary analysis of babies enrolled in two clinical studies and a systematic literature review. Among 312 infants who had been admitted to an ICU at Rady Children’s Hospital between November 2015 and September 2018 and received rapid genomic sequencing, 30 (10%) died in infancy. Ten (33%) of the infants who died were diagnosed with 11 genetic diseases. The San Diego Study of Outcomes in Mothers and Infants platform identified differences between in-hospital and out-of-hospital causes of infant death. Similarly, in six published studies, 195 (21%) of 918 infant deaths were associated with genetic diseases by genomic sequencing. In 195 infant deaths associated with genetic diseases, locus heterogeneity was 70%. Treatment guidelines existed for 70% of the genetic diseases diagnosed, suggesting that rapid genomic sequencing has substantial potential to decrease infant mortality among infants in ICUs. Further studies are needed in larger, comprehensive, unbiased patient sets to determine the generalizability of these findings.

PMID:33154820 | PMC:PMC7608690 | DOI:10.1038/s41525-020-00155-8

November 6, 2020
Infant Mortality

Mortality in a neonate with molybdenum cofactor deficiency illustrates the need for a comprehensive rapid precision medicine system

Kingsmore SF, Ramchandar N, James K, Niemi AK, Feigenbaum A, Ding Y, Benson W, Hobbs C, Nahas S, Chowdhury S, Dimmock D. 

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2020 Feb 3;6(1):a004705. doi: 10.1101/mcs.a004705. Print 2020 Feb. ABSTRACT Neonatal encephalopathy with seizures is a presentation in which rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) has shown clinical utility and improved outcomes. We report a neonate who presented on the third day of life with seizures refractory to antiepileptic medications and neurologic and computerized tomographic findings consistent with severe generalized brain swelling. rWGS revealed compound heterozygous variants in the molybdenum cofactor synthesis gene, type 1A (MOCS1 c.*7 + 5G > A and c.377G > A); a provisional diagnosis of molybdenum cofactor deficiency on day of life 4. An emergency investigational new drug application for intravenous replacement of the MOCS1 product, cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate, was considered, but felt unsuitable in light of the severity of disease and delay in the start of treatment. The patient died on day of life 9 despite having a precise molecular diagnosis within the first week of life. This case illustrates that an rWGS-based molecular diagnosis within the first week of life may be insufficient to improve outcomes. However, it did inform clinical decision-making with regard to resuscitation and predicted long-term outcome. We suggest that to achieve optimal reductions in morbidity and mortality, rWGS must be implemented within a comprehensive rapid precision medicine system (CRPM). Akin to newborn screening (NBS), CRPM will have onboarding, diagnosis, and precision medicine implementation components developed in response to patient and parental needs. Education of health-care providers in a learning model in which ongoing data analyses informs system improvement will be essential for optimal effectiveness of CRPM. PMID:32014857 | PMC:PMC6996516 | DOI:10.1101/mcs.a004705

February 5, 2020
Infant MortalityrWGS

2019

Rapid Whole Genome Sequencing Has Clinical Utility in Children in the PICU

Sanford EF, Clark MM, Farnaes L, Williams MR, Perry JC, Ingulli EG, Sweeney NM, Doshi A, Gold JJ, Briggs B, Bainbridge MN, Feddock M, Watkins K, Chowdhury S, Nahas SA, Dimmock DP, Kingsmore SF, Coufal NG; RCIGM Investigators.

Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2019 Nov;20(11):1007-1020. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002056. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: Genetic disorders are a leading contributor to mortality in the neonatal ICU and PICU in the United States. Although individually rare, there are over 6,200 single-gene diseases, which may preclude a genetic diagnosis prior to ICU admission. Rapid whole genome sequencing is an emerging method of diagnosing genetic conditions in time to affect ICU management of neonates; however, its clinical utility has yet to be adequately demonstrated in critically ill children. This study evaluates next-generation sequencing in pediatric critical care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single-center PICU in a tertiary children’s hospital. PATIENTS: Children 4 months to 18 years admitted to the PICU who were nominated between July 2016 and May 2018. INTERVENTIONS: Rapid whole genome sequencing with targeted phenotype-driven analysis was performed on patients and their parents, when parental samples were available. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A molecular diagnosis was made by rapid whole genome sequencing in 17 of 38 children (45%). In four of the 17 patients (24%), the genetic diagnoses led to a change in management while in the PICU, including genome-informed changes in pharmacotherapy and transition to palliative care. Nine of the 17 diagnosed children (53%) had no dysmorphic features or developmental delay. Eighty-two percent of diagnoses affected the clinical management of the patient and/or family after PICU discharge, including avoidance of biopsy, administration of factor replacement, and surveillance for disorder-related sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a retrospective evaluation for undiagnosed genetic disease in the PICU and clinical utility of rapid whole genome sequencing in a portion of critically ill children. Further studies are needed to identify PICU patients who will benefit from rapid whole genome sequencing early in PICU admission when the underlying etiology is unclear. PMID:31246743 | PMC:PMC6832787 | DOI:10.1097/PCC.0000000000002056

June 28, 2019
Infant MortalityrWGS

Diagnosis of genetic diseases in seriously ill children by rapid whole-genome sequencing and automated phenotyping and interpretation

Michelle M Clark, Amber Hildreth, Sergey Batalov, Yan Ding, Shimul Chowdhury, Kelly Watkins, Katarzyna Ellsworth, Brandon Camp, Cyrielle I Kint, Calum Yacoubian 5, Lauge Farnaes, Matthew N Bainbridge, Curtis Beebe, Joshua J A Braun, Margaret Bray, Jeanne Carroll, Julie A Cakici, Sara A Caylor, Christina Clarke, Mitchell P Creed, Jennifer Friedman, Alison Frith, Richard Gain, Mary Gaughran, Shauna George, Sheldon Gilmer, Joseph Gleeson, Jeremy Gore, Haiying Grunenwald, Raymond L Hovey, Marie L Janes, Kejia Lin, Paul D McDonagh, Kyle McBride, Patrick Mulrooney, Shareef Nahas, Daeheon Oh, Albert Oriol, Laura Puckett, Zia Rady, Martin G Reese, Julie Ryu, Lisa Salz, Erica Sanford, Lawrence Stewart, Nathaly Sweeney, Mari Tokita, Luca Van Der Kraan, Sarah White, Kristen Wigby, Brett Williams, Terence Wong, Meredith S Wright, Catherine Yamada, Peter Schols, John Reynders, Kevin Hall, David Dimmock, Narayanan Veeraraghavan, Thomas Defay 8, Stephen F Kingsmore

Sci Transl Med. 2019 Apr 24;11(489):eaat6177. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aat6177. ABSTRACT By informing timely targeted treatments, rapid whole-genome sequencing can improve the outcomes of seriously ill children with genetic diseases, particularly infants in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (ICUs). The need for highly qualified professionals to decipher results, however, precludes widespread implementation. We describe a platform for population-scale, provisional diagnosis of genetic diseases with automated phenotyping and interpretation. Genome sequencing was expedited by bead-based genome library preparation directly from blood samples and sequencing of paired 100-nt reads in 15.5 hours. Clinical natural language processing (CNLP) automatically extracted children’s deep phenomes from electronic health records with 80% precision and 93% recall. In 101 children with 105 genetic diseases, a mean of 4.3 CNLP-extracted phenotypic features matched the expected phenotypic features of those diseases, compared with a match of 0.9 phenotypic features used in manual interpretation. We automated provisional diagnosis by combining the ranking of the similarity of a patient’s CNLP phenome with respect to the expected phenotypic features of all genetic diseases, together with the ranking of the pathogenicity of all of the patient’s genomic variants. Automated, retrospective diagnoses concurred well with expert manual interpretation (97% recall and 99% precision in 95 children with 97 genetic diseases). Prospectively, our platform correctly diagnosed three of seven seriously ill ICU infants (100% precision and recall) with a mean time saving of 22:19 hours. In each case, the diagnosis affected treatment. Genome sequencing with automated phenotyping and interpretation in a median of 20:10 hours may increase adoption in ICUs and, thereby, timely implementation of precise treatments. PMID:31019026 | DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.aat6177

April 26, 2019
Infant MortalityRare Disease

2018

Whole exome sequencing reveals HSPA1L as a genetic risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth

Huusko JM, Karjalainen MK, Graham BE, Zhang G, Farrow EG, Miller NA, Jacobsson B, Eidem HR, Murray JC, Bedell B, Breheny P, Brown NW, Bødker FL, Litterman NK, Jiang PP, Russell L, Hinds DA, Hu Y; 23andMe Research Team, Rokas A, Teramo K, Christensen K, Williams SM, Rämet M, Kingsmore SF, Ryckman KK, Hallman M, Muglia LJ.

PLoS Genet. 2018 Jul 12;14(7):e1007394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007394. eCollection 2018 Jul. ABSTRACT Preterm birth is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the susceptibility to preterm birth, but despite many investigations, the genetic basis for preterm birth remain largely unknown. Our objective was to identify rare, possibly damaging, nucleotide variants in mothers from families with recurrent spontaneous preterm births (SPTB). DNA samples from 17 Finnish mothers who delivered at least one infant preterm were subjected to whole exome sequencing. All mothers were of northern Finnish origin and were from seven multiplex families. Additional replication samples of European origin consisted of 93 Danish sister pairs (and two sister triads), all with a history of a preterm delivery. Rare exonic variants (frequency <1%) were analyzed to identify genes and pathways likely to affect SPTB susceptibility. We identified rare, possibly damaging, variants in genes that were common to multiple affected individuals. The glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway was the most significant (p<1.7e-8) with genes containing these variants in a subgroup of ten Finnish mothers, each having had 2-4 SPTBs. This pathway was replicated among the Danish sister pairs. A gene in this pathway, heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1 like (HSPA1L), contains two likely damaging missense alleles that were found in four different Finnish families. One of the variants (rs34620296) had a higher frequency in cases compared to controls (0.0025 vs. 0.0010, p = 0.002) in a large preterm birth genome-wide association study (GWAS) consisting of mothers of general European ancestry. Sister pairs in replication samples also shared rare, likely damaging HSPA1L variants. Furthermore, in silico analysis predicted an additional phosphorylation site generated by rs34620296 that could potentially affect chaperone activity or HSPA1L protein stability. Finally, in vitro functional experiment showed a link between HSPA1L activity and decidualization. In conclusion, rare, likely damaging, variants in HSPA1L were observed in multiple families with recurrent SPTB. PMID:30001343 | PMC:PMC6042692 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007394

July 13, 2018
Infant Mortality

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