Rapid Whole Genome Sequencing for Diagnosis of Single Locus Genetic Diseases in Critically Ill Children
Owen MJ, Batalov S, Ellsworth KA, Wright M, Breeding S, Hugh K, Kingsmore SF, Ding Y.
Methods Mol Biol. 2023;2621:217-239. doi: 10.1007/978-1-0716-2950-5_12.
Upon admission to intensive care units (ICU), the differential diagnosis of almost all infants with diseases of unclear etiology includes single locus genetic diseases. Rapid whole genome sequencing (rWGS), including sample preparation, short-read sequencing-by-synthesis, informatics pipelining, and semiautomated interpretation, can now identify nucleotide and structural variants associated with most genetic diseases with robust analytic and diagnostic performance in as little as 13.5 h. Early diagnosis of genetic diseases transforms medical and surgical management of infants in ICUs, minimizing both the duration of empiric treatment and the delay to start of specific treatment. Both positive and negative rWGS tests have clinical utility and can improve outcomes. Since first described 10 years ago, rWGS has evolved considerably. Here we describe our current methods for routine diagnostic testing for genetic diseases by rWGS in as little as 18 h.
April 12, 2023
RPM for NICU and PICUrWGS
Automated prioritization of sick newborns for whole genome sequencing using clinical natural language processing and machine learning
Peterson B, Hernandez EJ, Hobbs C, Malone Jenkins S, Moore B, Rosales E, Zoucha S, Sanford E, Bainbridge MN, Frise E, Oriol A, Brunelli L, Kingsmore SF, Yandell M.
Genome Med. 2023 Mar 16;15(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s13073-023-01166-7.
BACKGROUND: Rapidly and efficiently identifying critically ill infants for whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a costly and challenging task currently performed by scarce, highly trained experts and is a major bottleneck for application of WGS in the NICU. There is a dire need for automated means to prioritize patients for WGS.
METHODS: Institutional databases of electronic health records (EHRs) are logical starting points for identifying patients with undiagnosed Mendelian diseases. We have developed automated means to prioritize patients for rapid and whole genome sequencing (rWGS and WGS) directly from clinical notes. Our approach combines a clinical natural language processing (CNLP) workflow with a machine learning-based prioritization tool named Mendelian Phenotype Search Engine (MPSE).
RESULTS: MPSE accurately and robustly identified NICU patients selected for WGS by clinical experts from Rady Children’s Hospital in San Diego (AUC 0.86) and the University of Utah (AUC 0.85). In addition to effectively identifying patients for WGS, MPSE scores also strongly prioritize diagnostic cases over non-diagnostic cases, with projected diagnostic yields exceeding 50% throughout the first and second quartiles of score-ranked patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that an automated pipeline for selecting acutely ill infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) for WGS can meet or exceed diagnostic yields obtained through current selection procedures, which require time-consuming manual review of clinical notes and histories by specialized personnel.
March 16, 2023
RPM for NICU and PICUrWGS
Scalable, high quality, whole genome sequencing from archived, newborn, dried blood spots
Ding Y, Owen M, Le J, Batalov S, Chau K, Kwon YH, Van Der Kraan L, Bezares-Orin Z, Zhu Z, Veeraraghavan N, Nahas S, Bainbridge M, Gleeson J, Baer RJ, Bandoli G, Chambers C, Kingsmore SF.
NPJ Genom Med. 2023 Feb 14;8(1):5. doi: 10.1038/s41525-023-00349-w.
Universal newborn screening (NBS) is a highly successful public health intervention. Archived dried bloodspots (DBS) collected for NBS represent a rich resource for population genomic studies. To fully harness this resource in such studies, DBS must yield high-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) for whole genome sequencing (WGS). In this pilot study, we hypothesized that gDNA of sufficient quality and quantity for WGS could be extracted from archived DBS up to 20 years old without PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplification. We describe simple methods for gDNA extraction and WGS library preparation from several types of DBS. We tested these methods in DBS from 25 individuals who had previously undergone diagnostic, clinical WGS and 29 randomly selected DBS cards collected for NBS from the California State Biobank. While gDNA from DBS had significantly less yield than from EDTA blood from the same individuals, it was of sufficient quality and quantity for WGS without PCR. All samples DBS yielded WGS that met quality control metrics for high-confidence variant calling. Twenty-eight variants of various types that had been reported clinically in 19 samples were recapitulated in WGS from DBS. There were no significant effects of age or paper type on WGS quality. Archived DBS appear to be a suitable sample type for WGS in population genomic studies.
February 14, 2023
Newborn ScreeningRPM for NICU and PICUrWGS
25: A Multicenter Cohort Analysis of Rapid Genome Sequencing in the PICU
Rodriguez, Katherine; Kobayashi, Erica Sanford; VanDongen-Trimmer, Heather; Salz, Lisa; Foley, Jennifer; Whalen, Drewann; Oluchukwu, Okonkwo; Liu, Kuang Chuen; Burton, Jennifer; Syngal, Prachi; Kingsmore, Stephen; Coufal, Nicole.
Critical Care Medicine 51(1):p 13, January 2023.
Genetic disorders contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in pediatric critical care. Diagnostic rapid whole genome sequencing (rWGS) has dramatically impacted care in neonatal intensive care units (ICU). There remains a population of undiagnosed patients with rare genetic diseases who present critically ill to the pediatric ICU (PICU) and the application of rWGS in this setting is not yet fully described. This study evaluated the clinical utility of rWGS in the PICU.
January 31, 2023
RPM for NICU and PICUrWGS
Breaking Barriers to Rapid Whole Genome Sequencing in Pediatrics: Michigan’s Project Baby Deer
Bupp CP, Ames EG, Arenchild MK, Caylor S, Dimmock DP, Fakhoury JD, Karna P, Lehman A, Meghea CI, Misra V, Nolan DA, O’Shea J, Sharangpani A, Franck LS, Scheurer-Monaghan A.
Children. 2023; 10(1):106. https://doi.org/10.3390/children10010106
The integration of precision medicine in the care of hospitalized children is ever evolving. However, access to new genomic diagnostics such as rapid whole genome sequencing (rWGS) is hindered by barriers in implementation. Michigan’s Project Baby Deer (PBD) is a multi-center collaborative effort that sought to break down barriers to access by offering rWGS to critically ill neonatal and pediatric inpatients in Michigan. The clinical champion team used a standardized approach with inclusion and exclusion criteria, shared learning, and quality improvement evaluation of the project’s impact on the clinical outcomes and economics of inpatient rWGS. Hospitals, including those without on-site geneticists or genetic counselors, noted positive clinical impacts, accelerating time to definitive treatment for project patients. Between 95–214 hospital days were avoided, net savings of $4155 per patient, and family experience of care was improved. The project spurred policy advancement when Michigan became the first state in the United States to have a Medicaid policy with carve-out payment to hospitals for rWGS testing. This state project demonstrates how front-line clinician champions can directly improve access to new technology for pediatric patients and serves as a roadmap for expanding clinical implementation of evidence-based precision medicine technologies.
January 4, 2023
RPM for NICU and PICUrWGS
Rapid genome sequencing identifies novel variants in complement factor I
Rodriguez KM, Vaught J, Dilley M, Ellsworth K, Heinen A, Abud EM, Zhang Y, Smith RJH, Sheets R, Geng B, Hoffman HM, Worthen HM, Dimmock D, Coufal NG.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2022 Dec 28;8(7):a006239. doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006239. Print 2022 Dec.
Complement factor I deficiency (CFID; OMIM #610984) is a rare immunodeficiency caused by deficiencies in the serine protease complement factor I (CFI). CFID is characterized by predisposition to severe pneumococcal infection, often in infancy. We report a previously healthy adolescent male who presented with respiratory failure secondary to pneumococcal pneumonia and severe systemic inflammatory response. Rapid genome sequencing (rGS) identified compound heterozygous variants in CFI in the proband, with a novel maternally inherited likely pathogenic variant, a single nucleotide deletion resulting in premature stop (c.1646del; p.Asn549ThrfsTer25) and a paternally inherited novel likely pathogenic deletion (Chr 4:110685580-110692197del).
December 28, 2022
Phenotypic screening models for rapid diagnosis of genetic variants and discovery of personalized therapeutics
Hopkins CE, Brock T, Caulfield TR, Bainbridge M.
Mol Aspects Med. 2022 Nov 18:101153. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2022.101153. Online ahead of print.
Precision medicine strives for highly individualized treatments for disease under the notion that each individual’s unique genetic makeup and environmental exposures imprints upon them not only a disposition to illness, but also an optimal therapeutic approach. In the realm of rare disorders, genetic predisposition is often the predominant mechanism driving disease presentation. For such, mostly, monogenic disorders, a causal gene to phenotype association is likely. As a result, it becomes important to query the patient’s genome for the presence of pathogenic variations that are likely to cause the disease. Determining whether a variant is pathogenic or not is critical to these analyses and can be challenging, as many disease-causing variants are novel and, ergo, have no available functional data to help categorize them. This problem is exacerbated by the need for rapid evaluation of pathogenicity, since many genetic diseases present in young children who will experience increased morbidity and mortality without rapid diagnosis and therapeutics. Here, we discuss the utility of animal models, with a focus mainly on C. elegans, as a contrast to tissue culture and in silico approaches, with emphasis on how these systems are used in determining pathogenicity of variants with uncertain significance and then used to screen for novel therapeutics.
November 18, 2022
Rapid Whole Genome Sequencing in Critically Ill Neonates Enables Precision Medicine Pipeline
Beaman M, Fisher K, McDonald M, Tan QKG, Jackson D, Cocanougher BT, Landstrom AP, Hobbs CA, Cotten M, Cohen JL.
J Pers Med. 2022 Nov 18;12(11):1924. doi: 10.3390/jpm12111924.
Rapid genome sequencing in critically ill infants is increasingly identified as a crucial test for providing targeted and informed patient care. We report the outcomes of a pilot study wherein eight critically ill neonates received rapid whole genome sequencing with parental samples in an effort to establish a prompt diagnosis. Our pilot study resulted in a 37.5% diagnostic rate by whole genome sequencing alone and an overall 50% diagnostic rate for the cohort. We describe how the diagnoses led to identification of additional affected relatives and a change in management, the limitations of rapid genome sequencing, and some of the challenges with sample collection. Alongside this pilot study, our site simultaneously established a research protocol pipeline that will allow us to conduct research-based genomic testing in the cases for which a diagnosis was not reached by rapid genome sequencing or other available clinical testing. Here we describe the benefits, limitations, challenges, and potential for rapid whole genome sequencing to be incorporated into routine clinical evaluation in the neonatal period.
November 18, 2022
RPM for NICU and PICUrWGS
Autosomal recessive LRP1-related syndrome featuring cardiopulmonary dysfunction, bone dysmorphology, and corneal clouding
Mark PR, Murray SA, Yang T, Eby A, Lai A, Lu D, Zieba J, Rajasekaran S, VanSickle EA, Rossetti LZ, Guidugli L, Watkins K, Wright MS, Bupp CP, Prokop JW.
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2022 Oct 28;8(6):a006169. doi: 10.1101/mcs.a006169. Print 2022 Oct.
We provide the first study of two siblings with a novel autosomal recessive LRP1-related syndrome identified by rapid genome sequencing and overlapping multiple genetic models. The patients presented with respiratory distress, congenital heart defects, hypotonia, dysmorphology, and unique findings, including corneal clouding and ascites. Both siblings had compound heterozygous damaging variants, c.11420G > C (p.Cys3807Ser) and c.12407T > G (p.Val4136Gly) in LRP1, in which segregation analysis helped dismiss additional variants of interest. LRP1 analysis using multiple human/mouse data sets reveals a correlation to patient phenotypes of Peters plus syndrome with additional severe cardiomyopathy and blood vessel development complications linked to neural crest cells.
October 28, 2022
Approaches to long-read sequencing in a clinical setting to improve diagnostic rate
Sanford Kobayashi E, Batalov S, Wenger AM, Lambert C, Dhillon H, Hall RJ, Baybayan P, Ding Y, Rego S, Wigby K, Friedman J, Hobbs C, Bainbridge MN.
Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 9;12(1):16945. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-20113-x.
Over the past decade, advances in genetic testing, particularly the advent of next-generation sequencing, have led to a paradigm shift in the diagnosis of molecular diseases and disorders. Despite our present collective ability to interrogate more than 90% of the human genome, portions of the genome have eluded us, resulting in stagnation of diagnostic yield with existing methodologies. Here we show how application of a new technology, long-read sequencing, has the potential to improve molecular diagnostic rates. Whole genome sequencing by long reads was able to cover 98% of next-generation sequencing dead zones, which are areas of the genome that are not interpretable by conventional industry-standard short-read sequencing. Through the ability of long-read sequencing to unambiguously call variants in these regions, we discovered an immunodeficiency due to a variant in IKBKG in a subject who had previously received a negative genome sequencing result. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability of long-read sequencing to detect small variants on par with short-read sequencing, its superior performance in identifying structural variants, and thirdly, its capacity to determine genomic methylation defects in native DNA. Though the latter technical abilities have been demonstrated, we demonstrate the clinical application of this technology to successfully identify multiple types of variants using a single test.
October 9, 2022