Scientific Publications

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313 Results

2023

BRAT1-related disorders: phenotypic spectrum and phenotype-genotype correlations from 97 patients

Engel C, Valence S, Delplancq G, Maroofian R, Accogli A, Agolini E, Alkuraya FS, Baglioni V, Bagnasco I, Becmeur-Lefebvre M, Bertini E, Borggraefe I, Brischoux-Boucher E, Bruel AL, Brusco A, Bubshait DK, Cabrol C, Cilio MR, Cornet MC, Coubes C, Danhaive O, Delague V, Denommé-Pichon AS, Di Giacomo MC, Doco-Fenzy M, Engels H, Cremer K, Gérard M, Gleeson JG, Heron D, Goffeney J, Guimier A, Harms FL, Houlden H, Iacomino M, Kaiyrzhanov R, Kamien B, Karimiani EG, Kraus D, Kuentz P, Kutsche K, Lederer D, Massingham L, Mignot C, Morris-Rosendahl D, Nagarajan L, Odent S, Ormières C, Partlow JN, Pasquier L, Penney L, Philippe C, Piccolo G, Poulton C, Putoux A, Rio M, Rougeot C, Salpietro V, Scheffer I, Schneider A, Srivastava S, Straussberg R, Striano P, Valente EM, Venot P, Villard L, Vitobello A, Wagner J, Wagner M, Zaki MS, Zara F, Lesca G, Yassaee VR, Miryounesi M, Hashemi-Gorji F, Beiraghi M, Ashrafzadeh F, Galehdari H, Walsh C, Novelli A, Tacke M, Sadykova D, Maidyrov Y, Koneev K, Shashkin C, Capra V, Zamani M, Van Maldergem L, Burglen L, Piard J.

Eur J Hum Genet. 2023 Jun 21. doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01410-z. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BRAT1 biallelic variants are associated with rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome, lethal neonatal (RMFSL), and neurodevelopmental disorder associating cerebellar atrophy with or without seizures syndrome (NEDCAS). To date, forty individuals have been reported in the literature. We collected clinical and molecular data from 57 additional cases allowing us to study a large cohort of 97 individuals and draw phenotype-genotype correlations. Fifty-nine individuals presented with BRAT1-related RMFSL phenotype. Most of them had no psychomotor acquisition (100%), epilepsy (100%), microcephaly (91%), limb rigidity (93%), and died prematurely (93%). Thirty-eight individuals presented a non-lethal phenotype of BRAT1-related NEDCAS phenotype. Seventy-six percent of the patients in this group were able to walk and 68% were able to say at least a few words. Most of them had cerebellar ataxia (82%), axial hypotonia (79%) and cerebellar atrophy (100%). Genotype-phenotype correlations in our cohort revealed that biallelic nonsense, frameshift or inframe deletion/insertion variants result in the severe BRAT1-related RMFSL phenotype (46/46; 100%). In contrast, genotypes with at least one missense were more likely associated with NEDCAS (28/34; 82%). The phenotype of patients carrying splice variants was variable: 41% presented with RMFSL (7/17) and 59% with NEDCAS (10/17). PMID:37344571 DOI:10.1038/s41431-023-01410-z

June 21, 2023
Neurogenomics

A gene-based association test of interactions for maternal-fetal genotypes identifies genes associated with nonsyndromic congenital heart defects

Huang M, Lyu C, Liu N, Nembhard WN, Witte JS, Hobbs CA, Li M; National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

Genet Epidemiol. 2023 Jun 21. doi: 10.1002/gepi.22533. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT The risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) may be influenced by maternal genes, fetal genes, and their interactions. Existing methods commonly test the effects of maternal and fetal variants one-at-a-time and may have reduced statistical power to detect genetic variants with low minor allele frequencies. In this article, we propose a gene-based association test of interactions for maternal-fetal genotypes (GATI-MFG) using a case-mother and control-mother design. GATI-MFG can integrate the effects of multiple variants within a gene or genomic region and evaluate the joint effect of maternal and fetal genotypes while allowing for their interactions. In simulation studies, GATI-MFG had improved statistical power over alternative methods, such as the single-variant test and functional data analysis (FDA) under various disease scenarios. We further applied GATI-MFG to a two-phase genome-wide association study of CHDs for the testing of both common variants and rare variants using 947 CHD case mother-infant pairs and 1306 control mother-infant pairs from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS). After Bonferroni adjustment for 23,035 genes, two genes on chromosome 17, TMEM107 (p = 1.64e-06) and CTC1 (p = 2.0e-06), were identified for significant association with CHD in common variants analysis. Gene TMEM107 regulates ciliogenesis and ciliary protein composition and was found to be associated with heterotaxy. Gene CTC1 plays an essential role in protecting telomeres from degradation, which was suggested to be associated with cardiogenesis. Overall, GATI-MFG outperformed the single-variant test and FDA in the simulations, and the results of application to NBDPS samples are consistent with existing literature supporting the association of TMEM107 and CTC1 with CHDs. PMID:37341229 DOI:10.1002/gepi.22533

June 21, 2023

Response to Grosse et al

Kingsmore SF, Smith LD, Kunard CM, Bainbridge M, Batalov S, Benson W, Blincow E, Caylor S, Chambers C, Del Angel G, Dimmock DP, Ding Y, Ellsworth K, Feigenbaum A, Frise E, Green RC, Guidugli L, Hall KP, Hansen C, Hobbs CA, Kahn SD, Kiel M, Van Der Kraan L, Krilow C, Kwon YH, Madhavrao L, Le J, Lefebvre S, Mardach R, Mowrey WR, Oh D, Owen MJ, Powley G, Scharer G, Shelnutt S, Tokita M, Mehtalia SS, Oriol A, Papadopoulos S, Perry J, Rosales E, Sanford E, Schwartz S, Tran D, Reese MG, Wright M, Veeraraghavan N, Wigby K, Willis MJ, Wolen AR, Defay T.

Am J Hum Genet. 2023 Jun 1;110(6):1017. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.05.004. NO ABSTRACT PMID:37267897 DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.05.004

June 1, 2023
Infant MortalityNewborn Screening

Variant STAT4 and Response to Ruxolitinib in an Autoinflammatory Syndrome

Baghdassarian H, Blackstone SA, Clay OS, Philips R, Matthiasardottir B, Nehrebecky M, Hua VK, McVicar R, Liu Y, Tucker SM, Randazzo D, Deuitch N, Rosenzweig S, Mark A, Sasik R, Fisch KM, Pimpale Chavan P, Eren E, Watts NR, Ma CA, Gadina M, Schwartz DM, Sanyal A, Werner G, Murdock DR, Horita N, Chowdhury S, Dimmock D, Jepsen K, Remmers EF, Goldbach-Mansky R, Gahl WA, O’Shea JJ, Milner JD, Lewis NE, Chang J, Kastner DL, Torok K, Oda H, Putnam CD, Broderick L.

N Engl J Med. 2023 May 31. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2202318. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Disabling pansclerotic morphea (DPM) is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder, characterized by poor wound healing, fibrosis, cytopenias, hypogammaglobulinemia, and squamous-cell carcinoma. The cause is unknown, and mortality is high. METHODS: We evaluated four patients from three unrelated families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance of DPM. Genomic sequencing independently identified three heterozygous variants in a specific region of the gene that encodes signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4). Primary skin fibroblast and cell-line assays were used to define the functional nature of the genetic defect. We also assayed gene expression using single-cell RNA sequencing of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to identify inflammatory pathways that may be affected in DPM and that may respond to therapy. RESULTS: Genome sequencing revealed three novel heterozygous missense gain-of-function variants in STAT4. In vitro, primary skin fibroblasts showed enhanced interleukin-6 secretion, with impaired wound healing, contraction of the collagen matrix, and matrix secretion. Inhibition of Janus kinase (JAK)-STAT signaling with ruxolitinib led to improvement in the hyperinflammatory fibroblast phenotype in vitro and resolution of inflammatory markers and clinical symptoms in treated patients, without adverse effects. Single-cell RNA sequencing revealed expression patterns consistent with an immunodysregulatory phenotype that were appropriately modified through JAK inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Gain-of-function variants in STAT4 caused DPM in the families that we studied. The JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib attenuated the dermatologic and inflammatory phenotype in vitro and in the affected family members. (Funded by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Foundation and others.). PMID:37256972 DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa2202318

May 31, 2023

Heteromeric clusters of ubiquitinated ER-shaping proteins drive ER-phagy

Foronda H, Fu Y, Covarrubias-Pinto A, Bocker HT, González A, Seemann E, Franzka P, Bock A, Bhaskara RM, Liebmann L, Hoffmann ME, Katona I, Koch N, Weis J, Kurth I, Gleeson JG, Reggiori F, Hummer G, Kessels MM, Qualmann B, Mari M, Dikić I, Hübner CA.

Nature. 2023 May 24. doi: 10.1038/s41586-023-06090-9. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Membrane-shaping proteins characterized by reticulon homology domains play an important part in the dynamic remodelling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An example of such a protein is FAM134B, which can bind LC3 proteins and mediate the degradation of ER sheets through selective autophagy (ER-phagy)1. Mutations in FAM134B result in a neurodegenerative disorder in humans that mainly affects sensory and autonomic neurons2. Here we report that ARL6IP1, another ER-shaping protein that contains a reticulon homology domain and is associated with sensory loss3, interacts with FAM134B and participates in the formation of heteromeric multi-protein clusters required for ER-phagy. Moreover, ubiquitination of ARL6IP1 promotes this process. Accordingly, disruption of Arl6ip1 in mice causes an expansion of ER sheets in sensory neurons that degenerate over time. Primary cells obtained from Arl6ip1-deficient mice or from patients display incomplete budding of ER membranes and severe impairment of ER-phagy flux. Therefore, we propose that the clustering of ubiquitinated ER-shaping proteins facilitates the dynamic remodelling of the ER during ER-phagy and is important for neuronal maintenance. PMID:37225994 DOI:10.1038/s41586-023-06090-9

May 24, 2023

AMFR dysfunction causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia in human that is amenable to statin treatment in a preclinical model

Deng R, Medico-Salsench E, Nikoncuk A, Ramakrishnan R, Lanko K, Kühn NA, van der Linde HC, Lor-Zade S, Albuainain F, Shi Y, Yousefi S, Capo I, van den Herik EM, van Slegtenhorst M, van Minkelen R, Geeven G, Mulder MT, Ruijter GJG, Lütjohann D, Jacobs EH, Houlden H, Pagnamenta AT, Metcalfe K, Jackson A, Banka S, De Simone L, Schwaede A, Kuntz N, Palculict TB, Abbas S, Umair M, AlMuhaizea M, Colak D, AlQudairy H, Alsagob M, Pereira C, Trunzo R, Karageorgou V, Bertoli-Avella AM, Bauer P, Bouman A, Hoefsloot LH, van Ham TJ, Issa M, Zaki MS, Gleeson JG, Willemsen R, Kaya N, Arold ST, Maroofian R, Sanderson LE, Barakat TS.

Acta Neuropathol. 2023 Apr 29. doi: 10.1007/s00401-023-02579-9. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are rare, inherited neurodegenerative or neurodevelopmental disorders that mainly present with lower limb spasticity and muscle weakness due to motor neuron dysfunction. Whole genome sequencing identified bi-allelic truncating variants in AMFR, encoding a RING-H2 finger E3 ubiquitin ligase anchored at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in two previously genetically unexplained HSP-affected siblings. Subsequently, international collaboration recognized additional HSP-affected individuals with similar bi-allelic truncating AMFR variants, resulting in a cohort of 20 individuals from 8 unrelated, consanguineous families. Variants segregated with a phenotype of mainly pure but also complex HSP consisting of global developmental delay, mild intellectual disability, motor dysfunction, and progressive spasticity. Patient-derived fibroblasts, neural stem cells (NSCs), and in vivo zebrafish modeling were used to investigate pathomechanisms, including initial preclinical therapy assessment. The absence of AMFR disturbs lipid homeostasis, causing lipid droplet accumulation in NSCs and patient-derived fibroblasts which is rescued upon AMFR re-expression. Electron microscopy indicates ER morphology alterations in the absence of AMFR. Similar findings are seen in amfra-/- zebrafish larvae, in addition to altered touch-evoked escape response and defects in motor neuron branching, phenocopying the HSP observed in patients. Interestingly, administration of FDA-approved statins improves touch-evoked escape response and motor neuron branching defects in amfra-/- zebrafish larvae, suggesting potential therapeutic implications. Our genetic and functional studies identify bi-allelic truncating variants in AMFR as a cause of a novel autosomal recessive HSP by altering lipid metabolism, which may potentially be therapeutically modulated using precision medicine with statins. PMID:37119330 DOI:10.1007/s00401-023-02579-9

April 29, 2023
Neurogenomics

The genomic landscape of familial glioma

Choi DJ, Armstrong G, Lozzi B, Vijayaraghavan P, Plon SE, Wong TC, Boerwinkle E, Muzny DM, Chen HC, Gibbs RA, Ostrom QT, Melin B, Deneen B, Bondy ML; Gliogene Consortium; Genomics England Research Consortium; Bainbridge MN, Amos CI, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Bernstein JL, Claus EB, Houlston RS, Il’yasova D, Jenkins RB, Johansen C, Lachance D, Lai R, Melin BS, Merrell RT, Olson SH, Sadetzki S, Schildkraut J, Shete S, Ambrose JC, Arumugam P, Bevers R, Bleda M, Boardman-Pretty F, Boustred CR, Brittain H, Brown MA, Caulfield MJ, Chan GC, Giess A, Griffin JN, Hamblin A, Henderson S, Hubbard TJP, Jackson R, Jones LJ, Kasperaviciute D, Kayikci M, Kousathanas A, Lahnstein L, Lakey A, Leigh SEA, Leong IUS, Lopez FJ, Maleady-Crowe F, McEntagart M, Minneci F, Mitchell J, Moutsianas L, Mueller M, Murugaesu N, Need AC, O’Donovan P, Odhams CA, Patch C, Perez-Gil D, Pereira MB, Pullinger J, Rahim T, Rendon A, Rogers T, Savage K, Sawant K, Scott RH, Siddiq A, Sieghart A, Smith SC, Sosinsky A, Stuckey A, Tanguy M, Taylor Tavares AL, Thomas ERA, Thompson SR, Tucci A, Welland MJ, Williams E, Witkowska K, Wood SM, Zarowiecki M.

Sci Adv. 2023 Apr 28;9(17):eade2675. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.ade2675. Epub 2023 Apr 28. ABSTRACT Glioma is a rare brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Familial glioma is a subset of glioma with a strong genetic predisposition that accounts for approximately 5% of glioma cases. We performed whole-genome sequencing on an exploratory cohort of 203 individuals from 189 families with a history of familial glioma and an additional validation cohort of 122 individuals from 115 families. We found significant enrichment of rare deleterious variants of seven genes in both cohorts, and the most significantly enriched gene was HERC2 (P = 0.0006). Furthermore, we identified rare noncoding variants in both cohorts that were predicted to affect transcription factor binding sites or cause cryptic splicing. Last, we selected a subset of discovered genes for validation by CRISPR knockdown screening and found that DMBT1, HP1BP3, and ZCH7B3 have profound impacts on proliferation. This study performs comprehensive surveillance of the genomic landscape of familial glioma. PMID:37115922 DOI:10.1126/sciadv.ade2675

April 28, 2023
Neuro-Oncology

ARF1-related disorder: phenotypic and molecular spectrum

de Sainte Agathe JM, Pode-Shakked B, Naudion S, Michaud V, Arveiler B, Fergelot P, Delmas J, Keren B, Poirsier C, Alkuraya FS, Tabarki B, Bend E, Davis K, Bebin M, Thompson ML, Bryant EM, Wagner M, Hannibal I, Lenberg J, Krenn M, Wigby KM, Friedman JR, Iascone M, Cereda A, Miao T, LeGuern E, Argilli E, Sherr E, Caluseriu O, Tidwell T, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Hagedorn C, Brugger M, Vill K, Morneau-Jacob FD, Chung W, Weaver KN, Owens JW, Husami A, Chaudhari BP, Stone BS, Burns K, Li R, de Lange IM, Biehler M, Ginglinger E, Gérard B, Stottmann RW, Trimouille A.

J Med Genet. 2023 Apr 25:jmg-2022-108803. doi: 10.1136/jmg-2022-108803. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT PURPOSE: ARF1 was previously implicated in periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) in only five individuals and systematic clinical characterisation was not available. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive description of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of ARF1-related neurodevelopmental disorder. METHODS: We collected detailed phenotypes of an international cohort of individuals (n=17) with ARF1 variants assembled through the GeneMatcher platform. Missense variants were structurally modelled, and the impact of several were functionally validated. RESULTS: De novo variants (10 missense, 1 frameshift, 1 splice altering resulting in 9 residues insertion) in ARF1 were identified among 17 unrelated individuals. Detailed phenotypes included intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly, seizures and PVNH. No specific facial characteristics were consistent across all cases, however microretrognathia was common. Various hearing and visual defects were recurrent, and interestingly, some inflammatory features were reported. MRI of the brain frequently showed abnormalities consistent with a neuronal migration disorder. CONCLUSION: We confirm the role of ARF1 in an autosomal dominant syndrome with a phenotypic spectrum including severe ID, microcephaly, seizures and PVNH due to impaired neuronal migration. PMID:37185208 DOI:10.1136/jmg-2022-108803

April 25, 2023
Genetic Neurologic Disease

3D genome mapping identifies subgroup-specific chromosome conformations and tumor-dependency genes in ependymoma

Okonechnikov K, Camgöz A, Chapman O, Wani S, Park DE, Hübner JM, Chakraborty A, Pagadala M, Bump R, Chandran S, Kraft K, Acuna-Hidalgo R, Reid D, Sikkink K, Mauermann M, Juarez EF, Jenseit A, Robinson JT, Pajtler KW, Milde T, Jäger N, Fiesel P, Morgan L, Sridhar S, Coufal NG, Levy M, Malicki D, Hobbs C, Kingsmore S, Nahas S, Snuderl M, Crawford J, Wechsler-Reya RJ, Davidson TB, Cotter J, Michaiel G, Fleischhack G, Mundlos S, Schmitt A, Carter H, Michealraj KA, Kumar SA, Taylor MD, Rich J, Buchholz F, Mesirov JP, Pfister SM, Ay F, Dixon JR, Kool M, Chavez L.

Nat Commun. 2023 Apr 21;14(1):2300. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-38044-0. ABSTRACT Ependymoma is a tumor of the brain or spinal cord. The two most common and aggressive molecular groups of ependymoma are the supratentorial ZFTA-fusion associated and the posterior fossa ependymoma group A. In both groups, tumors occur mainly in young children and frequently recur after treatment. Although molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases have recently been uncovered, they remain difficult to target and innovative therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Here, we use genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), complemented with CTCF and H3K27ac ChIP-seq, as well as gene expression and DNA methylation analysis in primary and relapsed ependymoma tumors, to identify chromosomal conformations and regulatory mechanisms associated with aberrant gene expression. In particular, we observe the formation of new topologically associating domains (‘neo-TADs’) caused by structural variants, group-specific 3D chromatin loops, and the replacement of CTCF insulators by DNA hyper-methylation. Through inhibition experiments, we validate that genes implicated by these 3D genome conformations are essential for the survival of patient-derived ependymoma models in a group-specific manner. Thus, this study extends our ability to reveal tumor-dependency genes by 3D genome conformations even in tumors that lack targetable genetic alterations. PMID:37085539 DOI:10.1038/s41467-023-38044-0

April 21, 2023
Neuro-Oncology

Clinical and molecular spectrum of a large Egyptian cohort with ALS2-related disorders of infantile-onset of clinical continuum IAHSP/JPLS

Zaki MS, Sharaf-Eldin WE, Rafat K, Elbendary HM, Kamel M, Elkhateeb N, Noureldeen MM, Abdeltawab MA, Sadek AA, Essawi ML, Lau T, Murphy D, Abdel-Hamid MS, Holuden H, Issa MY, Gleeson JG.

Clin Genet. 2023 Apr 13. doi: 10.1111/cge.14338. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT This study presents 46 patients from 23 unrelated Egyptian families with ALS2-related disorders without evidence of lower motor neuron involvement. Age at onset ranged from 10 months to 2.5 years, featuring progressive upper motor neuron signs. Detailed clinical phenotypes demonstrated inter- and intrafamilial variability. We identified 16 homozygous disease-causing ALS2 variants; sorted as splice-site, missense, frameshift, nonsense and in-frame in eight, seven, four, three, and one families, respectively. Seven of these variants were novel, expanding the mutational spectrum of the ALS2 gene. As expected, clinical severity was positively correlated with disease onset (p = 0.004). This work provides clinical and molecular profiles of a large single ethnic cohort of patients with ALS2 mutations, and suggests that infantile ascending hereditary spastic paralysis (IAHSP) and juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS) are belonged to one entity with no phenotype-genotype correlation. PMID:37055917 DOI:10.1111/cge.14338

April 13, 2023
Neurogenomics

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