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Response to Metcalfe et al

Dimmock DP.

Genet Med. 2018 Sep;20(9):1093. doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.208. NO ABSTRACT PMID:29240079 | DOI:10.1038/gim.2017.208

December 15, 2017

Response to Newman et al

Parikh S, Goldstein A, Karaa A, Koenig MK, Anselm I, Brunel-Guitton C, Christodoulou J, Cohen BH, Dimmock D, Enns GM, Falk MJ, Feigenbaum A, Frye RE, Ganesh J, Griesemer D, Haas R, Horvath R, Korson M, Kruer MC, Mancuso M, McCormack S, Josee Raboisson M, Reimschisel T, Salvarinova R, Saneto RP, Scaglia F, Shoffner J, Stacpoole PW, Sue CM, Tarnopolsky M, Van Karnebeek C, Wolfe LA, Zolkipli Cunningham Z, Rahman S, Chinnery PF.

Genet Med. 2017 Dec;19(12):10.1038/gim.2017.164. doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.164. Epub 2017 Oct 26. NO ABSTRACT PMID:29215644 | PMC:PMC7787267 | DOI:10.1038/gim.2017.164

December 8, 2017

The humanistic burden of Pompe disease: are there still unmet needs? A systematic review

Schoser B, Bilder DA, Dimmock D, Gupta D, James ES, Prasad S.

BMC Neurol. 2017 Nov 22;17(1):202. doi: 10.1186/s12883-017-0983-2. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Humanistic burden considers the impact of an illness on a patient’s health-related quality of life (HRQoL), activities of daily living (ADL), caregiver health, and caregiver QoL. Humanistic burden also considers treatment satisfaction and adherence to treatment regimens. Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive, progressive, multisystemic neuromuscular disease. Approval of enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT) markedly improved prognosis for patients, but considerable morbidity and a substantial humanistic burden remain. This article characterizes the humanistic burden of Pompe disease through a systematic literature review. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE® and Embase® with back-referencing and supplementary literature searches was performed to retrieve data from interventional and non-interventional studies on the humanistic burden of Pompe disease. Publications were screened according to predefined criteria, extracted, and assessed for quality. Extracted data were narratively synthesized. RESULTS: No publications on the humanistic burden of infantile-onset Pompe disease (IOPD) were identified. As such, of 17 publications included here, all are in patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD). Thirteen publications were initiated after approval of ERT, two were initiated before, and two overlapped the approval of ERT. The review shows that LOPD patients have a significantly lower HRQoL than the general population, even if treated with ERT. On transitioning to ERT, treatment was associated with improvement in the physical component score of the SF-36 and fatigue, although the SF-36 mental component score remained stable. Physical HRQoL remained below population norms after 4 years of ERT. Significantly more ERT-treated patients reported pain than controls, and bodily pain worsened in later years following ERT initiation. Treatment-naïve LOPD patients had significantly poorer ADL functioning compared with the general population, although ERT stabilized deteriorating functioning impairment. ERT studies showed caregivers provide 17.7 h/week informal care on average. Fifty percent, 40% and <20% of caregivers reported mental health, physical health, and financial/relational problems, respectively. In ERT-naïve patients, wheelchair use and home ventilatory support was associated with lower physical HRQoL and ADL functioning. In ERT-treated patients, key factors predicting worse HRQoL and ADL functioning were higher respiratory distress, poorer sleep quality, greater pain, and more fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Pompe disease has a substantial humanistic burden, with strong inter-relationships among and between humanistic burden parameters and clinical progression. PMID:29166883 | PMC:PMC5700516 | DOI:10.1186/s12883-017-0983-2

November 24, 2017

Mutations in GPAA1, Encoding a GPI Transamidase Complex Protein, Cause Developmental Delay, Epilepsy, Cerebellar Atrophy, and Osteopenia

Nguyen TTM, Murakami Y, Sheridan E, Ehresmann S, Rousseau J, St-Denis A, Chai G, Ajeawung NF, Fairbrother L, Reimschisel T, Bateman A, Berry-Kravis E, Xia F, Tardif J, Parry DA, Logan CV, Diggle C, Bennett CP, Hattingh L, Rosenfeld JA, Perry MS, Parker MJ, Le Deist F, Zaki MS, Ignatius E, Isohanni P, Lönnqvist T, Carroll CJ, Johnson CA, Gleeson JG, Kinoshita T, Campeau PM.

Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Nov 2;101(5):856-865. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.020. ABSTRACT Approximately one in every 200 mammalian proteins is anchored to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. These proteins play important roles notably in neurological development and function. To date, more than 20 genes have been implicated in the biogenesis of GPI-anchored proteins. GPAA1 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1) is an essential component of the transamidase complex along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and PIGU (phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis classes K, S, T, and U, respectively). This complex orchestrates the attachment of the GPI anchor to the C terminus of precursor proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we report bi-allelic mutations in GPAA1 in ten individuals from five families. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified two frameshift mutations (c.981_993del [p.Gln327Hisfs102] and c.920delG [p.Gly307Alafs11]), one intronic splicing mutation (c.1164+5C>T), and six missense mutations (c.152C>T [p.Ser51Leu], c.160_161delinsAA [p.Ala54Asn], c.527G>C [p.Trp176Ser], c.869T>C [p.Leu290Pro], c.872T>C [p.Leu291Pro], and c.1165G>C [p.Ala389Pro]). Most individuals presented with global developmental delay, hypotonia, early-onset seizures, cerebellar atrophy, and osteopenia. The splicing mutation was found to decrease GPAA1 mRNA. Moreover, flow-cytometry analysis of five available individual samples showed that several GPI-anchored proteins had decreased cell-surface abundance in leukocytes (FLAER, CD16, and CD59) or fibroblasts (CD73 and CD109). Transduction of fibroblasts with a lentivirus encoding the wild-type protein partially rescued the deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins. These findings highlight the role of the transamidase complex in the development and function of the cerebellum and the skeletal system. PMID:29100095 | PMC:PMC5673666 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.020

November 4, 2017

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 deficiency causes paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia

Friedman J, Feigenbaum A, Chuang N, Silhavy J, Gleeson JG.

Neurology. 2017 Nov 28;89(22):2297-2298. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000004689. Epub 2017 Nov 1. NO ABSTRACT PMID:29093066 | PMC:PMC5705245 | DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004689

November 3, 2017

Molecular subtyping of tumors from patients with familial glioma

Ruiz VY, Praska CE, Armstrong G, Kollmeyer TM, Yamada S, Decker PA, Kosel ML, Eckel-Passow JE, Lachance DH, Bainbridge MN, Melin BS, Bondy ML, Jenkins RB; Gliogene Consortium.

Neuro Oncol. 2018 May 18;20(6):810-817. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nox192. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Single-gene mutation syndromes account for some familial glioma (FG); however, they make up only a small fraction of glioma families. Gliomas can be classified into 3 major molecular subtypes based on isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion. We hypothesized that the prevalence of molecular subtypes might differ in familial versus sporadic gliomas and that tumors in the same family should have the same molecular subtype. METHODS: Participants in the FG study (Gliogene) provided samples for germline DNA analysis. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors were obtained from a subset of FG cases, and DNA was extracted. We analyzed tissue from 75 families, including 10 families containing a second affected family member. Copy number variation data were obtained using a first-generation Affymetrix molecular inversion probe (MIP) array. RESULTS: Samples from 62 of 75 (83%) FG cases could be classified into the 3 subtypes. The prevalence of the molecular subtypes was: 30 (48%) IDH-wildtype, 21 (34%) IDH-mutant non-codeleted, and 11 (19%) IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted. This distribution of molecular subtypes was not statistically different from that of sporadic gliomas (P = 0.54). Of 10 paired FG samples, molecular subtypes were concordant for 7 (κ = 0.59): 3 IDH-mutant non-codeleted, 2 IDH-wildtype, and 2 IDH-mutant and 1p/19q codeleted gliomas. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that within individual families, patients develop gliomas of the same molecular subtype. However, we did not observe differences in the prevalence of the molecular subtypes in FG compared with sporadic gliomas. These observations provide further insight into the distribution of molecular subtypes in FG. PMID:29040662 | PMC:PMC5961123 | DOI:10.1093/neuonc/nox192

October 18, 2017
Gene Discovery

Hypomorphic Recessive Variants in SUFU Impair the Sonic Hedgehog Pathway and Cause Joubert Syndrome with Cranio-facial and Skeletal Defects

De Mori R, Romani M, D’Arrigo S, Zaki MS, Lorefice E, Tardivo S, Biagini T, Stanley V, Musaev D, Fluss J, Micalizzi A, Nuovo S, Illi B, Chiapparini L, Di Marcotullio L, Issa MY, Anello D, Casella A, Ginevrino M, Leggins AS, Roosing S, Alfonsi R, Rosati J, Schot R, Mancini GMS, Bertini E, Dobyns WB, Mazza T, Gleeson JG, Valente EM.

Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Oct 5;101(4):552-563. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.08.017. Epub 2017 Sep 28. ABSTRACT The Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway is a key signaling pathway orchestrating embryonic development, mainly of the CNS and limbs. In vertebrates, SHH signaling is mediated by the primary cilium, and genetic defects affecting either SHH pathway members or ciliary proteins cause a spectrum of developmental disorders. SUFU is the main negative regulator of the SHH pathway and is essential during development. Indeed, Sufu knock-out is lethal in mice, and recessive pathogenic variants of this gene have never been reported in humans. Through whole-exome sequencing in subjects with Joubert syndrome, we identified four children from two unrelated families carrying homozygous missense variants in SUFU. The children presented congenital ataxia and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia with elongated superior cerebellar peduncles (mild “molar tooth sign”), typical cranio-facial dysmorphisms (hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, frontal bossing), and postaxial polydactyly. Two siblings also showed polymicrogyria. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted random movements of the mutated residues, with loss of the native enveloping movement of the binding site around its ligand GLI3. Functional studies on cellular models and fibroblasts showed that both variants significantly reduced SUFU stability and its capacity to bind GLI3 and promote its cleavage into the repressor form GLI3R. In turn, this impaired SUFU-mediated repression of the SHH pathway, as shown by altered expression levels of several target genes. We demonstrate that germline hypomorphic variants of SUFU cause deregulation of SHH signaling, resulting in recessive developmental defects of the CNS and limbs which share features with both SHH-related disorders and ciliopathies. PMID:28965847 | PMC:PMC5630196 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.08.017

October 3, 2017

Low CSF 5-HIAA in Myoclonus Dystonia

Peall KJ, Ng J, Dy ME, Sharma N, Pope S, Heales S, Friedman JR, Kurian MA.

Mov Disord. 2017 Nov;32(11):1647-1649. doi: 10.1002/mds.27117. Epub 2017 Sep 26. NO ABSTRACT PMID:28949039 | PMC:PMC5796435 | DOI:10.1002/mds.27117

September 27, 2017

Homozygous Mutations in TBC1D23 Lead to a Non-degenerative Form of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia

Marin-Valencia I, Gerondopoulos A, Zaki MS, Ben-Omran T, Almureikhi M, Demir E, Guemez-Gamboa A, Gregor A, Issa MY, Appelhof B, Roosing S, Musaev D, Rosti B, Wirth S, Stanley V, Baas F, Barr FA, Gleeson JG.

Am J Hum Genet. 2017 Sep 7;101(3):441-450. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.07.015. Epub 2017 Aug 17. ABSTRACT Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) represents a group of recessive developmental disorders characterized by impaired growth of the pons and cerebellum, which frequently follows a degenerative course. Currently, there are 10 partially overlapping clinical subtypes and 13 genes known mutated in PCH. Here, we report biallelic TBC1D23 mutations in six individuals from four unrelated families manifesting a non-degenerative form of PCH. In addition to reduced volume of pons and cerebellum, affected individuals had microcephaly, psychomotor delay, and ataxia. In zebrafish, tbc1d23 morphants replicated the human phenotype showing hindbrain volume loss. TBC1D23 localized at the trans-Golgi and was regulated by the small GTPases Arl1 and Arl8, suggesting a role in trans-Golgi membrane trafficking. Altogether, this study provides a causative link between TBC1D23 mutations and PCH and suggests a less severe clinical course than other PCH subtypes. PMID:28823706 | PMC:PMC5590949 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.07.015

August 22, 2017

Should we implement population screening for fragile X?

Dimmock DP. 

Genet Med. 2017 Dec;19(12):1295-1299. doi: 10.1038/gim.2017.81. Epub 2017 Aug 3. NO ABSTRACT PMID:28771250 | DOI:10.1038/gim.2017.81

August 4, 2017

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