Scientific Publications

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13 Results


Whole exome sequencing reveals HSPA1L as a genetic risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth

Huusko JM, Karjalainen MK, Graham BE, Zhang G, Farrow EG, Miller NA, Jacobsson B, Eidem HR, Murray JC, Bedell B, Breheny P, Brown NW, Bødker FL, Litterman NK, Jiang PP, Russell L, Hinds DA, Hu Y; 23andMe Research Team, Rokas A, Teramo K, Christensen K, Williams SM, Rämet M, Kingsmore SF, Ryckman KK, Hallman M, Muglia LJ.

PLoS Genet. 2018 Jul 12;14(7):e1007394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007394. eCollection 2018 Jul. ABSTRACT Preterm birth is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the susceptibility to preterm birth, but despite many investigations, the genetic basis for preterm birth remain largely unknown. Our objective was to identify rare, possibly damaging, nucleotide variants in mothers from families with recurrent spontaneous preterm births (SPTB). DNA samples from 17 Finnish mothers who delivered at least one infant preterm were subjected to whole exome sequencing. All mothers were of northern Finnish origin and were from seven multiplex families. Additional replication samples of European origin consisted of 93 Danish sister pairs (and two sister triads), all with a history of a preterm delivery. Rare exonic variants (frequency <1%) were analyzed to identify genes and pathways likely to affect SPTB susceptibility. We identified rare, possibly damaging, variants in genes that were common to multiple affected individuals. The glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway was the most significant (p<1.7e-8) with genes containing these variants in a subgroup of ten Finnish mothers, each having had 2-4 SPTBs. This pathway was replicated among the Danish sister pairs. A gene in this pathway, heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1 like (HSPA1L), contains two likely damaging missense alleles that were found in four different Finnish families. One of the variants (rs34620296) had a higher frequency in cases compared to controls (0.0025 vs. 0.0010, p = 0.002) in a large preterm birth genome-wide association study (GWAS) consisting of mothers of general European ancestry. Sister pairs in replication samples also shared rare, likely damaging HSPA1L variants. Furthermore, in silico analysis predicted an additional phosphorylation site generated by rs34620296 that could potentially affect chaperone activity or HSPA1L protein stability. Finally, in vitro functional experiment showed a link between HSPA1L activity and decidualization. In conclusion, rare, likely damaging, variants in HSPA1L were observed in multiple families with recurrent SPTB. PMID:30001343 | PMC:PMC6042692 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007394

July 13, 2018
Infant Mortality

Rapid whole-genome sequencing decreases infant morbidity and cost of hospitalization

Farnaes L, Hildreth A, Sweeney NM, Clark MM, Chowdhury S, Nahas S, Cakici JA, Benson W, Kaplan RH, Kronick R, Bainbridge MN, Friedman J, Gold JJ, Ding Y, Veeraraghavan N, Dimmock D, Kingsmore SF. 

NPJ Genom Med. 2018 Apr 4;3:10. doi: 10.1038/s41525-018-0049-4. eCollection 2018. ABSTRACT Genetic disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) can diagnose genetic disorders in time to change acute medical or surgical management (clinical utility) and improve outcomes in acutely ill infants. We report a retrospective cohort study of acutely ill inpatient infants in a regional children’s hospital from July 2016-March 2017. Forty-two families received rWGS for etiologic diagnosis of genetic disorders. Probands also received standard genetic testing as clinically indicated. Primary end-points were rate of diagnosis, clinical utility, and healthcare utilization. The latter was modelled in six infants by comparing actual utilization with matched historical controls and/or counterfactual utilization had rWGS been performed at different time points. The diagnostic sensitivity of rWGS was 43% (eighteen of 42 infants) and 10% (four of 42 infants) for standard genetic tests (P = .0005). The rate of clinical utility of rWGS (31%, thirteen of 42 infants) was significantly greater than for standard genetic tests (2%, one of 42; P = .0015). Eleven (26%) infants with diagnostic rWGS avoided morbidity, one had a 43% reduction in likelihood of mortality, and one started palliative care. In six of the eleven infants, the changes in management reduced inpatient cost by $800,000-$2,000,000. These findings replicate a prior study of the clinical utility of rWGS in acutely ill inpatient infants, and demonstrate improved outcomes and net healthcare savings. rWGS merits consideration as a first tier test in this setting. PMID:29644095 | PMC:PMC5884823 | DOI:10.1038/s41525-018-0049-4

April 13, 2018
Infant MortalityrWGSrWGS Efficacy

The NSIGHT1-randomized controlled trial: rapid whole-genome sequencing for accelerated etiologic diagnosis in critically ill infants

Petrikin JE, Cakici JA, Clark MM, Willig LK, Sweeney NM, Farrow EG, Saunders CJ, Thiffault I, Miller NA, Zellmer L, Herd SM, Holmes AM, Batalov S, Veeraraghavan N, Smith LD, Dimmock DP, Leeder JS, Kingsmore SF.

NPJ Genom Med. 2018 Feb 9;3:6. doi: 10.1038/s41525-018-0045-8. eCollection 2018. ABSTRACT Genetic disorders are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units (NICU/PICU). While genomic sequencing is useful for genetic disease diagnosis, results are usually reported too late to guide inpatient management. We performed an investigator-initiated, partially blinded, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial to test the hypothesis that rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) increased the proportion of NICU/PICU infants receiving a genetic diagnosis within 28 days. The participants were families with infants aged <4 months in a regional NICU and PICU, with illnesses of unknown etiology. The intervention was trio rWGS. Enrollment from October 2014 to June 2016, and follow-up until November 2016. Of all, 26 female infants, 37 male infants, and 2 infants of undetermined sex were randomized to receive rWGS plus standard genetic tests (n = 32, cases) or standard genetic tests alone (n = 33, controls). The study was terminated early due to loss of equipoise: 73% (24) controls received genomic sequencing as standard tests, and 15% (five) controls underwent compassionate cross-over to receive rWGS. Nevertheless, intention to treat analysis showed the rate of genetic diagnosis within 28 days of enrollment (the primary end-point) to be higher in cases (31%, 10 of 32) than controls (3%, 1 of 33; difference, 28% [95% CI, 10-46%]; p = 0.003). Among infants enrolled in the first 25 days of life, the rate of neonatal diagnosis was higher in cases (32%, 7 of 22) than controls (0%, 0 of 23; difference, 32% [95% CI, 11-53%];p = 0.004). Median age at diagnosis (25 days [range 14-90] in cases vs. 130 days [range 37-451] in controls) and median time to diagnosis (13 days [range 1-84] in cases, vs. 107 days [range 21-429] in controls) were significantly less in cases than controls (p = 0.04). In conclusion, rWGS increased the proportion of NICU/PICU infants who received timely diagnoses of genetic diseases. PMID:29449963 | PMC:PMC5807510 | DOI:10.1038/s41525-018-0045-8

February 17, 2018
Infant MortalityrWGSrWGS Efficacy

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