Scientific Publications

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247 Results

2018

Biallelic Mutations in ADPRHL2, Encoding ADP-Ribosylhydrolase 3, Lead to a Degenerative Pediatric Stress-Induced Epileptic Ataxia Syndrome

Ghosh SG, Becker K, Huang H, Dixon-Salazar T, Chai G, Salpietro V, Al-Gazali L, Waisfisz Q, Wang H, Vaux KK, Stanley V, Manole A, Akpulat U, Weiss MM, Efthymiou S, Hanna MG, Minetti C, Striano P, Pisciotta L, De Grandis E, Altmüller J, Nürnberg P, Thiele H, Yis U, Okur TD, Polat AI, Amiri N, Doosti M, Karimani EG, Toosi MB, Haddad G, Karakaya M, Wirth B, van Hagen JM, Wolf NI, Maroofian R, Houlden H, Cirak S, Gleeson JG. 

Am J Hum Genet. 2018 Sep 6;103(3):431-439. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.07.010. Epub 2018 Aug 9. ABSTRACT ADP-ribosylation, the addition of poly-ADP ribose (PAR) onto proteins, is a response signal to cellular challenges, such as excitotoxicity or oxidative stress. This process is catalyzed by a group of enzymes referred to as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Because the accumulation of proteins with this modification results in cell death, its negative regulation restores cellular homeostasis: a process mediated by poly-ADP ribose glycohydrolases (PARGs) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase proteins (ARHs). Using linkage analysis and exome or genome sequencing, we identified recessive inactivating mutations in ADPRHL2 in six families. Affected individuals exhibited a pediatric-onset neurodegenerative disorder with progressive brain atrophy, developmental regression, and seizures in association with periods of stress, such as infections. Loss of the Drosophila paralog Parg showed lethality in response to oxidative challenge that was rescued by human ADPRHL2, suggesting functional conservation. Pharmacological inhibition of PARP also rescued the phenotype, suggesting the possibility of postnatal treatment for this genetic condition. PMID:30100084 | PMC:PMC6128219 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.07.010

August 14, 2018

Urea Cycle Dysregulation Generates Clinically Relevant Genomic and Biochemical Signatures

Lee JS, Adler L, Karathia H, Carmel N, Rabinovich S, Auslander N, Keshet R, Stettner N, Silberman A, Agemy L, Helbling D, Eilam R, Sun Q, Brandis A, Malitsky S, Itkin M, Weiss H, Pinto S, Kalaora S, Levy R, Barnea E, Admon A, Dimmock D, Stern-Ginossar N, Scherz A, Nagamani SCS, Unda M, Wilson DM 3rd, Elhasid R, Carracedo A, Samuels Y, Hannenhalli S, Ruppin E, Erez A.

Cell. 2018 Sep 6;174(6):1559-1570.e22. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.07.019. Epub 2018 Aug 9. ABSTRACT The urea cycle (UC) is the main pathway by which mammals dispose of waste nitrogen. We find that specific alterations in the expression of most UC enzymes occur in many tumors, leading to a general metabolic hallmark termed “UC dysregulation” (UCD). UCD elicits nitrogen diversion toward carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydrooratase (CAD) activation and enhances pyrimidine synthesis, resulting in detectable changes in nitrogen metabolites in both patient tumors and their bio-fluids. The accompanying excess of pyrimidine versus purine nucleotides results in a genomic signature consisting of transversion mutations at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels. This mutational bias is associated with increased numbers of hydrophobic tumor antigens and a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors independent of mutational load. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that UCD is a common feature of tumors that profoundly affects carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and immunotherapy response. PMID:30100185 | PMC:PMC6225773 | DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2018.07.019

August 14, 2018

Mutations in LNPK, Encoding the Endoplasmic Reticulum Junction Stabilizer Lunapark, Cause a Recessive Neurodevelopmental Syndrome

Breuss MW, Nguyen A, Song Q, Nguyen T, Stanley V, James KN, Musaev D, Chai G, Wirth SA, Anzenberg P, George RD, Johansen A, Ali S, Zia-Ur-Rehman M, Sultan T, Zaki MS,Gleeson JG. 

Am J Hum Genet. 2018 Aug 2;103(2):296-304. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.06.011. Epub 2018 Jul 19. ABSTRACT The dynamic shape of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a reflection of its wide variety of critical cell biological functions. Consequently, perturbation of ER-shaping proteins can cause a range of human phenotypes. Here, we describe three affected children (from two consanguineous families) who carry homozygous loss-of-function mutations in LNPK (previously known as KIAA1715); this gene encodes lunapark, which is proposed to serve as a curvature-stabilizing protein within tubular three-way junctions of the ER. All individuals presented with severe psychomotor delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, epilepsy, and corpus callosum hypoplasia, and two of three showed mild cerebellar hypoplasia and atrophy. Consistent with a proposed role in neurodevelopmental disease, LNPK was expressed during brain development in humans and mice and was present in neurite-like processes in differentiating human neural progenitor cells. Affected cells showed the absence of full-length lunapark, aberrant ER structures, and increased luminal mass density. Together, our results implicate the ER junction stabilizer lunapark in establishing the corpus callosum. PMID:30032983 | PMC:PMC6080764 | DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.06.011

July 24, 2018

Biallelic loss of human CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, leads to ARP2/3 complex overactivity and disordered cortical neuronal migration

Schaffer AE, Breuss MW, Caglayan AO, Al-Sanaa N, Al-Abdulwahed HY, Kaymakçalan H, Yılmaz C, Zaki MS, Rosti RO, Copeland B, Baek ST, Musaev D, Scott EC, Ben-Omran T, Kariminejad A, Kayserili H, Mojahedi F, Kara M, Cai N, Silhavy JL, Elsharif S, Fenercioglu E, Barshop BA, Kara B, Wang R, Stanley V, James KN, Nachnani R, Kalur A, Megahed H, Incecik F, Danda S, Alanay Y, Faqeih E, Melikishvili G, Mansour L, Miller I, Sukhudyan B, Chelly J, Dobyns WB, Bilguvar K, Jamra RA, Gunel M, Gleeson JG.

Nat Genet. 2018 Aug;50(8):1093-1101. doi: 10.1038/s41588-018-0166-0. Epub 2018 Jul 16. ABSTRACT Neuronal migration defects, including pachygyria, are among the most severe developmental brain defects in humans. Here, we identify biallelic truncating mutations in CTNNA2, encoding αN-catenin, in patients with a distinct recessive form of pachygyria. CTNNA2 was expressed in human cerebral cortex, and its loss in neurons led to defects in neurite stability and migration. The αN-catenin paralog, αE-catenin, acts as a switch regulating the balance between β-catenin and Arp2/3 actin filament activities1. Loss of αN-catenin did not affect β-catenin signaling, but recombinant αN-catenin interacted with purified actin and repressed ARP2/3 actin-branching activity. The actin-binding domain of αN-catenin or ARP2/3 inhibitors rescued the neuronal phenotype associated with CTNNA2 loss, suggesting ARP2/3 de-repression as a potential disease mechanism. Our findings identify CTNNA2 as the first catenin family member with biallelic mutations in humans, causing a new pachygyria syndrome linked to actin regulation, and uncover a key factor involved in ARP2/3 repression in neurons. PMID:30013181 | PMC:PMC6072555 | DOI:10.1038/s41588-018-0166-0

July 18, 2018

Meta-analysis of the diagnostic and clinical utility of genome and exome sequencing and chromosomal microarray in children with suspected genetic diseases

NPJ Genom Med. 2018 Jul 9;3:16. doi: 10.1038/s41525-018-0053-8. eCollection 2018.

ABSTRACT

Genetic diseases are leading causes of childhood mortality. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) are relatively new methods for diagnosing genetic diseases, whereas chromosomal microarray (CMA) is well established. Here we compared the diagnostic utility (rate of causative, pathogenic, or likely pathogenic genotypes in known disease genes) and clinical utility (proportion in whom medical or surgical management was changed by diagnosis) of WGS, WES, and CMA in children with suspected genetic diseases by systematic review of the literature (January 2011-August 2017) and meta-analysis, following MOOSE/PRISMA guidelines. In 37 studies, comprising 20,068 children, diagnostic utility of WGS (0.41, 95% CI 0.34-0.48, I2 = 44%) and WES (0.36, 95% CI 0.33-0.40, I2 = 83%) were qualitatively greater than CMA (0.10, 95% CI 0.08-0.12, I2 = 81%). Among studies published in 2017, the diagnostic utility of WGS was significantly greater than CMA (P < 0.0001, I2 = 13% and I2 = 40%, respectively). Among studies featuring within-cohort comparisons, the diagnostic utility of WES was significantly greater than CMA (P < 0.001, I2 = 36%). The diagnostic utility of WGS and WES were not significantly different. In studies featuring within-cohort comparisons of WGS/WES, the likelihood of diagnosis was significantly greater for trios than singletons (odds ratio 2.04, 95% CI 1.62-2.56, I2 = 12%; P < 0.0001). Diagnostic utility of WGS/WES with hospital-based interpretation (0.42, 95% CI 0.38-0.45, I2 = 48%) was qualitatively higher than that of reference laboratories (0.29, 95% CI 0.27-0.31, I2 = 49%); this difference was significant among studies published in 2017 (P < .0001, I2 = 22% and I2 = 26%, respectively). The clinical utility of WGS (0.27, 95% CI 0.17-0.40, I2 = 54%) and WES (0.17, 95% CI 0.12-0.24, I2 = 76%) were higher than CMA (0.06, 95% CI 0.05-0.07, I2 = 42%); this difference was significant for WGS vs CMA (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, in children with suspected genetic diseases, the diagnostic and clinical utility of WGS/WES were greater than CMA. Subgroups with higher WGS/WES diagnostic utility were trios and those receiving hospital-based interpretation. WGS/WES should be considered a first-line genomic test for children with suspected genetic diseases.

PMID:30002876 | PMC:PMC6037748 | DOI:10.1038/s41525-018-0053-8

July 14, 2018

Whole exome sequencing reveals HSPA1L as a genetic risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth

Huusko JM, Karjalainen MK, Graham BE, Zhang G, Farrow EG, Miller NA, Jacobsson B, Eidem HR, Murray JC, Bedell B, Breheny P, Brown NW, Bødker FL, Litterman NK, Jiang PP, Russell L, Hinds DA, Hu Y; 23andMe Research Team, Rokas A, Teramo K, Christensen K, Williams SM, Rämet M, Kingsmore SF, Ryckman KK, Hallman M, Muglia LJ.

PLoS Genet. 2018 Jul 12;14(7):e1007394. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007394. eCollection 2018 Jul. ABSTRACT Preterm birth is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the susceptibility to preterm birth, but despite many investigations, the genetic basis for preterm birth remain largely unknown. Our objective was to identify rare, possibly damaging, nucleotide variants in mothers from families with recurrent spontaneous preterm births (SPTB). DNA samples from 17 Finnish mothers who delivered at least one infant preterm were subjected to whole exome sequencing. All mothers were of northern Finnish origin and were from seven multiplex families. Additional replication samples of European origin consisted of 93 Danish sister pairs (and two sister triads), all with a history of a preterm delivery. Rare exonic variants (frequency <1%) were analyzed to identify genes and pathways likely to affect SPTB susceptibility. We identified rare, possibly damaging, variants in genes that were common to multiple affected individuals. The glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway was the most significant (p<1.7e-8) with genes containing these variants in a subgroup of ten Finnish mothers, each having had 2-4 SPTBs. This pathway was replicated among the Danish sister pairs. A gene in this pathway, heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 1 like (HSPA1L), contains two likely damaging missense alleles that were found in four different Finnish families. One of the variants (rs34620296) had a higher frequency in cases compared to controls (0.0025 vs. 0.0010, p = 0.002) in a large preterm birth genome-wide association study (GWAS) consisting of mothers of general European ancestry. Sister pairs in replication samples also shared rare, likely damaging HSPA1L variants. Furthermore, in silico analysis predicted an additional phosphorylation site generated by rs34620296 that could potentially affect chaperone activity or HSPA1L protein stability. Finally, in vitro functional experiment showed a link between HSPA1L activity and decidualization. In conclusion, rare, likely damaging, variants in HSPA1L were observed in multiple families with recurrent SPTB. PMID:30001343 | PMC:PMC6042692 | DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007394

July 13, 2018
Infant Mortality

Implementation, adoption, and utility of family health history risk assessment in diverse care settings: evaluating implementation processes and impact with an implementation framework

Wu RR, Myers RA, Sperber N, Voils CI, Neuner J, McCarty CA, Haller IV, Harry M, Fulda KG, Cross D, Dimmock D, Rakhra-Burris T, Buchanan AH, Ginsburg GS, Orlando LA.

Genet Med. 2019 Feb;21(2):331-338. doi: 10.1038/s41436-018-0049-x. Epub 2018 Jun 6. ABSTRACT PURPOSE: This paper describes the implementation outcomes associated with integrating a family health history-based risk assessment and clinical decision support platform within primary care clinics at four diverse healthcare systems. METHODS: A type III hybrid implementation-effectiveness trial. Uptake and implementation processes were evaluated using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. RESULTS: One hundred (58%) primary care providers and 2514 (7.8%) adult patients enrolled. Enrolled patients were 69% female, 22% minority, and 32% Medicare/Medicaid. Compared with their respective clinic’s population, patient-participants were more likely to be female (69 vs. 59%), older (mean age 57 vs. 49), and Caucasian (88 vs. 69%) (all p values <0.001). Female (81.3% of females vs. 78.5% of males, p value = 0.018) and Caucasian (Caucasians 90.4% vs. minority 84.1%, p value = 0.02) patient-participants were more likely to complete the study once enrolled. Patient-participant survey responses indicated MeTree was easy to use (95%), and patient-participants would recommend it to family/friends (91%). Minorities and those with less education reported greatest benefit. Enrolled providers reflected demographics of underlying provider population. CONCLUSION: Family health history-based risk assessment can be effectively implemented in diverse primary care settings and can effectively engage patients and providers. Future research should focus on finding better ways to engage young adults, males, and minorities in preventive healthcare. PMID:29875427 | PMC:PMC6281814 | DOI:10.1038/s41436-018-0049-x

June 8, 2018

Sdha+/- Rats Display Minimal Muscle Pathology Without Significant Behavioral or Biochemical Abnormalities

Siebers EM, Choi MJ, Tinklenberg JA, Beatka MJ, Ayres S, Meng H, Helbling DC, Takizawa A, Bennett B, Garces AM, Dias Duarte Machado LG, Dimmock D, Dwinell MR, Geurts AM, Lawlor MW.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2018 Aug 1;77(8):665-672. doi: 10.1093/jnen/nly042. ABSTRACT Mitochondrial diseases (MDs) result from alteration of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) function. Despite the prevalence of MDs in the population, the paucity of animal models available limits the understanding of these disorders. Mutations in SDHA, a gene that codes for the alpha subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), can cause some forms of MD. SDHA is a crucial contributor to MRC function. In order to expand the range of MD animal models available, we attempted to generate a Sdha knockout rat. Since homozygous Sdha-/- rats could neither be identified in newborn litters, nor as early as embryonic day 14, we evaluated wild-type (WT) and heterozygous Sdha+/- genotypes. No differences in behavioral, biochemical, or molecular evaluations were observed between WT and Sdha+/- rats at 6 weeks or 6 months of age. However, 30% of Sdha+/- rats displayed mild muscle fiber atrophy with rare fibers negative for cytochrome oxidase and SDH on histochemical staining. Collectively, our data provide additional evidence that modeling SDH mutations in rodents may be challenging due to animal viability, and heterozygous rats are insufficiently symptomatic at a phenotypic and molecular level to be of significant use in the study of SDH deficiency. PMID:29850869 | PMC:PMC6044411 | DOI:10.1093/jnen/nly042

June 1, 2018

Comprehensive Profiling of DNA Repair Defects in Breast Cancer Identifies a Novel Class of Endocrine Therapy Resistance Drivers

Anurag M, Punturi N, Hoog J, Bainbridge MN, Ellis MJ, Haricharan S.

Clin Cancer Res. 2018 Oct 1;24(19):4887-4899. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-3702. Epub 2018 May 23. ABSTRACT Purpose: This study was undertaken to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the role of DNA damage repair (DDR) defects in poor outcome ER+ disease. Experimental Design: Expression and mutational status of DDR genes in ER+ breast tumors were correlated with proliferative response in neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy trials (discovery dataset), with outcomes in METABRIC, TCGA, and Loi datasets (validation datasets), and in patient-derived xenografts. A causal relationship between candidate DDR genes and endocrine treatment response, and the underlying mechanism, was then tested in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Results: Correlations between loss of expression of three genes: CETN2 (P < 0.001) and ERCC1 (P = 0.01) from the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and NEIL2 (P = 0.04) from the base excision repair (BER) pathways were associated with endocrine treatment resistance in discovery dataset, and subsequently validated in independent patient cohorts. Complementary mutation analysis supported associations between mutations in NER and BER genes and reduced endocrine treatment response. A causal role for CETN2, NEIL2, and ERCC1 loss in intrinsic endocrine resistance was experimentally validated in ER+ breast cancer cell lines, and in ER+ patient-derived xenograft models. Loss of CETN2, NEIL2, or ERCC1 induced endocrine treatment resistance by dysregulating G1-S transition, and therefore, increased sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. A combined DDR signature score was developed that predicted poor outcome in multiple patient cohorts. Conclusions: This report identifies DDR defects as a new class of endocrine treatment resistance drivers and indicates new avenues for predicting efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibition in the adjuvant treatment setting. Clin Cancer Res; 24(19); 4887-99. ©2018 AACR. PMID:29793947 | PMC:PMC6822623 | DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-3702

May 26, 2018
Gene Discovery

Syndromic congenital myelofibrosis associated with a loss-of-function variant in RBSN

Magoulas PL, Shchelochkov OA, Bainbridge MN, Ben-Shachar S, Yatsenko S, Potocki L, Lewis RA, Searby C, Marcogliese AN, Elghetany MT, Zapata G, Hernández PP, Gadkari M, Einhaus D, Muzny DM, Gibbs RA, Bertuch AA, Scott DA, Corvera S, Franco LM.

Blood. 2018 Aug 9;132(6):658-662. doi: 10.1182/blood-2017-12-824433. Epub 2018 May 21. ABSTRACT Publisher’s Note: There is a Blood Commentary on this article in this issue. PMID:29784638 | PMC:PMC6085991 | DOI:10.1182/blood-2017-12-824433

May 23, 2018
Gene Discovery

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