Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2018 Jun 1;4(3):a002469. doi: 10.1101/mcs.a002469. Print 2018 Jun.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results from incomplete formation of the diaphragm leading to herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. CDH is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart disease, and pulmonary hypertension. Genetically, it is associated with aneuploidies, chromosomal copy-number variants, and single gene mutations. CDH is the most expensive noncardiac congenital defect. Management frequently requires implementation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), which increases management expenditures 2.4-3.5-fold. The cost of management of CDH has been estimated to exceed $250 million per year. Despite in-hospital survival of 80%-90%, current management is imperfect, as a great proportion of surviving children have long-term functional deficits. We report the case of a premature infant prenatally diagnosed with CDH and congenital heart disease, who had a protracted and complicated course in the intensive care unit with multiple surgical interventions, including postcardiac surgery ECMO, gastrostomy tube placement with Nissen fundoplication, tracheostomy for respiratory failure, recurrent infections, and developmental delay. Rapid whole-genome sequencing (rWGS) identified a de novo, likely pathogenic, c.3096_ 3100delCAAAG (p.Lys1033Argfs*32) variant in ARID1B, providing a diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome. Her parents elected palliative care and she died later that day.