Mol Genet Metab. 2018 May;124(1):27-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.03.006. Epub 2018 Mar 31.
BACKGROUND: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency that results in phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation. Pegvaliase, PEGylated recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), converts Phe to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, and is a potential enzyme substitution therapy to lower blood Phe in adults with PKU.
METHODS: Two Phase 3 studies, PRISM-1 and PRISM-2, evaluated the efficacy and safety of pegvaliase treatment using an induction, titration, and maintenance dosing regimen in adults with PKU. In PRISM-1, pegvaliase-naïve participants with blood Phe >600 μmol/L were randomized 1:1 to a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day or 40 mg/day of pegvaliase. Participants in PRISM-1 continued pegvaliase treatment in PRISM-2, a 4-part clinical trial that includes an ongoing, open-label, long-term extension study of pegvaliase doses of 5 mg/day to 60 mg/day.
RESULTS: Of 261 participants who received pegvaliase treatment, 72.0% and 32.6% reached ≥12 months and ≥ 24 months of study treatment, respectively, and 65% are still actively receiving treatment. Mean (SD) blood Phe was 1232.7 (386.4) μmol/L at baseline, 564.5 (531.2) μmol/L at 12 months, and 311.4 (427) μmol/L at 24 months, a decrease from baseline of 51.1% and 68.7%, respectively. Within 24 months, 68.4% of participants achieved blood Phe ≤600 μmol/L, 60.7% of participants achieved blood Phe ≤360 μmol/L, below the upper limit recommended in the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics PKU management guidelines, and 51.2% achieved blood Phe ≤120 μmol/L, below the upper limit of normal in the unaffected population. Improvements in neuropsychiatric outcomes were associated with reductions in blood Phe and were sustained with long-term pegvaliase treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were more frequent in the first 6 months of exposure (early treatment phase) than after 6 months of exposure (late treatment phase); 99% of AEs were mild or moderate in severity and 96% resolved without dose interruption or reduction. The most common AEs were arthralgia (70.5%), injection-site reaction (62.1%), injection-site erythema (47.9%), and headache (47.1%). Acute systemic hypersensitivity events consistent with clinical National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network anaphylaxis criteria were observed in 12 participants (17 events); of these, 6 participants remained on treatment. Acute systemic hypersensitivity events including potential events of anaphylaxis were not associated with immunoglobulin E, and all events resolved without sequelae.
CONCLUSION: Results from the PRISM Phase 3 program support the efficacy of pegvaliase for the treatment of adults with PKU, with a manageable safety profile in most participants. The PRISM-2 extension study will continue to assess the long-term effects of pegvaliase treatment.