Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2018 Jul 17;5(8):996-1010. doi: 10.1002/acn3.597. eCollection 2018 Aug.
Paroxysmal movement disorders encompass varied motor phenomena. Less recognized features and wide phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity are impediments to straightforward molecular diagnosis. We describe a family with episodic ataxia type 1, initially mis-characterized as paroxysmal dystonia to illustrate this diagnostic challenge. We summarize clinical features in affected individuals to highlight underappreciated aspects and provide comprehensive phenotypic description of the rare familial KCNA1 mutation. Delayed diagnosis in this family is emblematic of the broader challenge of diagnosing other paroxysmal motor disorders. We summarize genotypic and phenotypic overlap and provide a suggested diagnostic algorithm for approaching patients with these conditions.