J Pediatr. 2023 Jan 13:S0022-3476(23)00019-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.12.036. Online ahead of print.
OBJECTIVES: To characterize bleeding phenotype in Noonan Syndrome, to test the utility of following national guidelines in detecting this phenotype, to evaluate thromboelastography (TEG) as a diagnostic tool and to evaluate the cohort for genotype-phenotype correlations.
STUDY DESIGN: Participants with a clinical diagnosis NS or related RASopathy were enrolled in a cohort study. Study procedures included clinical bleeding assessment, coagulation testing per guidelines and hematology consultation. TEG was completed in a subset and genetic testing was conducted for those without a molecular diagnosis. International Society of Haemostasis and Thrombosis Bleeding Assessment Tool (ISTH-BAT) scores were calculated with hematology consultation. Bleeding phenotype was defined as abnormal bleeding score.
RESULTS: Twenty participants enrolled; 12completed clinical and laboratory evaluation, five of whom met the definition for bleeding phenotype. Four of the five participants with a bleeding phenotype had platelet aggregation defects and at least one additional coagulation defect. TEG was performed in nine participants, four with bleeding phenotype and five without, and results were normal in all cases. No genotype-phenotype correlation was found.
CONCLUSION: Five of 20 participants had a bleeding phenotype identified. Based on available data we do not recommend incorporating TEG into clinical practice for NS patients. Platelet aggregation defects were the most common abnormalities, which would not be detected on Tier 1 testing of current guidelines, therefore we propose a new algorithm.