Am J Med Genet A. 2021 Nov 26. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62574. Online ahead of print.
Pegvaliase is approved to reduce phenylalanine (Phe) levels for people with phenylketonuria (PKU). PRISM-1 (NCT01819727) and PRISM-2 (NCT01889862) data were analyzed to evaluate the relationship between Phe and inattention in adult participants with PKU. In the modified-intent-to-treat population (N = 156), baseline mean (SE) plasma Phe was 1263 (29) μmol/L and the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV Inattentive (IA) symptoms score was 9.8 (0.5). Mean (SE) IA scores fell 9.0 (1.1) in Quartile 1 (Phe reduction between 1166 and 2229 μmol/L) versus 4.3 (0.7) in Quartile 4 (Phe reduction of 139 μmol/L to increase of 934 μmol/L), p = 0.004. Least squares mean (SE) change from baseline IA score was -7.9 (0.7) for participants with final Phe ≤ 360 μmol/L and -4.5 (0.7) for final Phe > 360 μmol/L, p < 0.001. In the inattention subgroup, IA scores fell 13.3 (1.5) in Quartile 1 (Phe reduction between 1288 and 2229 μmol/L) versus 6.2 (1.3) in Quartile 4 (Phe reduction of 247 to increase of 934 μmol/L), p = 0.009. Inattention symptoms improved among those whose Phe levels decreased, particularly those with high baseline IA scores. IA improvements were larger among participants with the greatest plasma Phe reductions, supporting this value as a therapeutic goal.