J Perinatol. 2020 Jul;40(7):1007-1016. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-0697-y. Epub 2020 May 29.
Genetic disorders presenting in the neonatal period can have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis can facilitate timely prognostic counseling to families and possibility of precision care, which could improve outcome. As availability of diagnostic testing expands, the required knowledge base of the neonatologist must also expand to include proper application and understanding of genetic testing modalities, especially where availability of clinical genetics consultation is limited. Herein, we review genetic tests utilized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) providing background on the technology, clinical indications, advantages, and limitations of the tests. This review will span from classic cytogenetics to the evolving role of next generation sequencing and its impact on the management of neonatal disease.