Genet Med. 2022 Jan 10:S1098-3600(21)05422-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2021.12.003. Online ahead of print.
PURPOSE: Gabriele-de Vries syndrome (GADEVS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and distinct facial features. To refine the phenotype and to better understand the molecular basis of the syndrome, we analyzed clinical data and performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of a series of individuals carrying a YY1 variant.
METHODS: Clinical data were collected for 13 individuals not yet reported through an international call for collaboration. DNA was collected for 11 of these individuals and 2 previously reported individuals in an attempt to delineate a specific DNA methylation signature in GADEVS.
RESULTS: Phenotype in most individuals overlapped with the previously described features. We described 1 individual with atypical phenotype, heterozygous for a missense variant in a domain usually not involved in individuals with YY1 pathogenic missense variations. We also described a specific peripheral blood DNA methylation profile associated with YY1 variants.
CONCLUSION: We reported a distinct DNA methylation episignature in GADEVS. We expanded the clinical profile of GADEVS to include thin/sparse hair and cryptorchidism. We also highlighted the utility of DNA methylation episignature analysis for classification of variants of unknown clinical significance.