Eur J Hum Genet. 2023 Jun 21. doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01410-z. Online ahead of print.
BRAT1 biallelic variants are associated with rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome, lethal neonatal (RMFSL), and neurodevelopmental disorder associating cerebellar atrophy with or without seizures syndrome (NEDCAS). To date, forty individuals have been reported in the literature. We collected clinical and molecular data from 57 additional cases allowing us to study a large cohort of 97 individuals and draw phenotype-genotype correlations. Fifty-nine individuals presented with BRAT1-related RMFSL phenotype. Most of them had no psychomotor acquisition (100%), epilepsy (100%), microcephaly (91%), limb rigidity (93%), and died prematurely (93%). Thirty-eight individuals presented a non-lethal phenotype of BRAT1-related NEDCAS phenotype. Seventy-six percent of the patients in this group were able to walk and 68% were able to say at least a few words. Most of them had cerebellar ataxia (82%), axial hypotonia (79%) and cerebellar atrophy (100%). Genotype-phenotype correlations in our cohort revealed that biallelic nonsense, frameshift or inframe deletion/insertion variants result in the severe BRAT1-related RMFSL phenotype (46/46; 100%). In contrast, genotypes with at least one missense were more likely associated with NEDCAS (28/34; 82%). The phenotype of patients carrying splice variants was variable: 41% presented with RMFSL (7/17) and 59% with NEDCAS (10/17).