Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2020 Dec;26(12):e305-e308. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.029. Epub 2020 Sep 10.
Effective immunosuppressive regimens to prevent the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are essential to the success of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). After revolutionizing haploidentical transplantation, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is now being evaluated for HCT performed from related and unrelated donors. In this setting, 2 recent randomized studies have demonstrated lower rates of GVHD and superior GVHD-free, relapse-free survival with PTCy compared with conventional GVHD prophylaxis. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) is currently conducting a large, randomized phase III, multicenter trial (BMT CTN 1703) comparing PTCy/tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil to tacrolimus/methotrexate as GVHD prophylaxis regimens in reduced-intensity allogeneic HCT. Here we review the ongoing study, highlight its importance to the field, and explore the possible implications of its results on clinical practice.