Maternal Smoking and Congenital Heart Defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2011

J Pediatr. 2021 Sep 8:S0022-3476(21)00877-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.09.005. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To assess associations between maternal smoking and congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective case-control study using data for cases of CHD (n=8,339) and non-malformed controls (n=11,020) children from all years (1997-2011) of the National Birth Defects […]

To Be or No B2: A Rare Cause of Stridor and Weakness in a Toddler

Child Neurol Open. 2021 Aug 5;8:2329048X211030723. doi: 10.1177/2329048X211030723. eCollection 2021 Jan-Dec. ABSTRACT We present a case of a young child with a rare metabolic disorder whose clinical presentation resembled that of autoimmune myasthenia gravis. The differential diagnosis was expanded when autoantibody testing was negative and the patient did not respond to standard immunomodulatory therapies. Rapid […]

Use of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing to Identify Pathogens in Pediatric Osteoarticular Infections

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Jul 17;8(7):ofab346. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofab346. eCollection 2021 Jul. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Osteoarticular infections (OAIs) are frequently encountered in children. Treatment may be guided by isolation of a pathogen; however, operative cultures are often negative. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) allows for broad and sensitive pathogen detection that is culture-independent. We sought to evaluate […]

Ending a diagnostic odyssey: Moving from exome to genome to identify cockayne syndrome

Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2021 Jun 2:e1623. doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1623. Online ahead of print. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth failure and multisystemic degeneration. Excision repair cross-complementation group 6 (ERCC6 OMIM: *609413) is the gene most frequently mutated in CS. METHODS: A child with pre and postnatal growth […]

Failure to thrive – an overlooked manifestation of KMT2B-related dystonia: a case presentation

BMC Neurol. 2020 Jun 16;20(1):246. doi: 10.1186/s12883-020-01798-x. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: KMT2B-related dystonia is a recently described form of childhood onset dystonia that may improve with deep brain stimulation. Prior reports have focused on neurologic features including prominent bulbar involvement without detailing general health consequences that may result from orolingual dysfunction. We describe a family with novel […]

The Medical Genome Initiative: moving whole-genome sequencing for rare disease diagnosis to the clinic

Genome Med. 2020 May 27;12(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s13073-020-00748-z. ABSTRACT Clinical whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offers clear diagnostic benefits for patients with rare disease. However, there are barriers to its widespread adoption, including a lack of standards for clinical practice. The Medical Genome Initiative consortium was formed to provide practical guidance and support the development of standards for […]

Consensus guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH<sub>4</sub>) deficiencies

Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2020 May 26;15(1):126. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01379-8. ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies comprise a group of six rare neurometabolic disorders characterized by insufficient synthesis of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin due to a disturbance of BH4 biosynthesis or recycling. Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) is the first diagnostic hallmark for most BH4 deficiencies, apart from […]

Pathogenic variants in SQOR encoding sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase are a potentially treatable cause of Leigh disease

J Inherit Metab Dis. 2020 Sep;43(5):1024-1036. doi: 10.1002/jimd.12232. Epub 2020 Apr 15. ABSTRACT Hydrogen sulfide, a signaling molecule formed mainly from cysteine, is catabolized by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (gene SQOR). Toxic hydrogen sulfide exposure inhibits complex IV. We describe children of two families with pathogenic variants in SQOR. Exome sequencing identified variants; SQOR enzyme activity was […]